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8. POST-MEDIEVAL (1485–1750): RESEARCH AGENDA

Click here to see the recommended strategic objectives for this period.

8.1 Urbanism: morphology, functions and buildings

8.1.1: Can we elucidate the roles of towns as social, administrative, industrial and commercial centres, their integration within regional marketing systems and their relationship to communication routes?

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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
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POST MEDIEVAL, 20TH CENTURY, 21ST CENTURY, GEORGIAN, VICTORIAN, HANOVERIAN

8.1.2: How were towns organised and planned, and how did population growth impact upon their internal spatial organisation?

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8.1.3: What was the impact of religion, urban government, civic pride and class structures upon town planning and architecture (e.g. public buildings such as town halls or prisons and water management structures)?

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East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, 20TH CENTURY, 21ST CENTURY, GEORGIAN, VICTORIAN, HANOVERIAN

8.1.4: What can studies of environmental data, artefacts and structural remains tell us about variations in diet, living conditions and status?

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East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
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POST MEDIEVAL, 20TH CENTURY, 21ST CENTURY, GEORGIAN, VICTORIAN, HANOVERIAN

8.1.5: Can we recognise the emergence of the poorer classes in the developing suburbs?

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East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
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POST MEDIEVAL, 20TH CENTURY, 21ST CENTURY, GEORGIAN, VICTORIAN, HANOVERIAN
Linked Strategy(s):
Identify and research the landless urban and rural poor

8.1.6: How can we advance studies of building plans and standing remains, especially where hidden inside later buildings, and of caves and cellars?

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8.2 Landscapes of display: country houses and gardens

8.2.1: Can we elucidate further the use of social space in buildings and across the landscape, the manipulation of vistas and the integration of gardens with the wider landscape?

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8.2.2: How were garden designs influenced by changing fashions and by a familiarity with Continental garden styles?

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8.2.3: What horticultural methods, planting schemes and water management methods were employed by garden planners?

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8.2.4: How are tenants and servants reflected in the surviving material culture?

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8.2.5: Can we establish regional typologies of parklands, parkland structures and the villages and cottages associated with estates?

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8.3 Agricultural landscapes and the food-producing economy

8.3.1: How can we improve our understanding of the early landscapes of enclosure and improvement and the interrelationship between arable, pasture, woodland, commons and waste?

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Active
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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, 20TH CENTURY, 21ST CENTURY, GEORGIAN, VICTORIAN, HANOVERIAN
Linked Strategy(s):
Identify agricultural improvements of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries

8.3.2: How did water management and land drainage change the landscape during this period?

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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, 20TH CENTURY, 21ST CENTURY, GEORGIAN, VICTORIAN, HANOVERIAN
Linked Strategy(s):
Identify agricultural improvements of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries

8.3.3: What changes and improvements occurred in animal husbandry and the use of animals (e.g. new breeds, traction and traded animal products)?

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Active
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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, 20TH CENTURY, 21ST CENTURY, GEORGIAN, VICTORIAN, HANOVERIAN
Linked Strategy(s):
Identify agricultural improvements of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries

8.3.4: What garden plants and crops were grown in the countryside and urban market gardens, and what new types were introduced?

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Active
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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, 20TH CENTURY, 21ST CENTURY, GEORGIAN, VICTORIAN, HANOVERIAN
Linked Strategy(s):
Identify agricultural improvements of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries

8.4 Rural settlement patterns and building traditions

8.4.1: Can we enhance our understanding of the houses of the rural poor?

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8.4.2: Can we develop as an aid to academic study and conservation management a regional typology of farmhouses, barns and other rural vernacular buildings?

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8.4.3: Can we discern intra-regional or temporal variations in the pattern of rural vernacular architecture?

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Active
Date accepted:
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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, 20TH CENTURY, 21ST CENTURY, GEORGIAN, VICTORIAN, HANOVERIAN
Linked Strategy(s):
Establish a typology of regional building traditions

8.4.4: What was the impact of industrialisation upon established settlement patterns and the rural landscape, and how did this vary regionally?

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8.4.5: How did the diet, living conditions and status of rural and urban communities compare?

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Active
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, 20TH CENTURY, 21ST CENTURY, GEORGIAN, VICTORIAN, HANOVERIAN
Linked Strategy(s):
Identify agricultural improvements of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries

8.5 Industry and communications

8.5.1: Can we elucidate the organisation of the workplace, gender differences at work and the development of industrial processes (especially the nationally important lead, coal and tanning industries)?

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8.5.2: Can we shed further light upon the developing technology of the regionally important early stoneware potteries?

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Active
Date accepted:
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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Research the development of East Midlands industry and its impact upon landscape and settlement morphology

8.5.3: Can we identify domestic buildings adapted for the textile industry?

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8.5.4: How were transport infrastructures improved and how was this related to the developing urban and market hierarchy?

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Active
Date accepted:
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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Research the development of East Midlands industry and its impact upon landscape and settlement morphology

8.5.5: What may be learned of the material culture of industrial workers?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Research the development of East Midlands industry and its impact upon landscape and settlement morphology

8.5.6: What can we deduce from factory/non-factory production data about the changing economy (especially patterns of marketing and consumption)?

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Active
Date accepted:
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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Research the development of East Midlands industry and its impact upon landscape and settlement morphology

8.6 Ecclesiastical structures, estates and burials

8.6.1: What was the impact of the Reformation upon ecclesiastical buildings and monastic estates?

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Date accepted:
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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Study the post-Dissolution re-use of monastic structures and the continuity of monastic estates

8.6.2: Can a typology of church-related and non-Anglican buildings be devised?

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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL

8.6.3: How can we ensure appropriate recording of churches and chapels, graveyards, artefacts of burial and remembrance and human remains (with their major potential for elucidating diet, health and demography)?

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Active
Date accepted:
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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Investigate graveyards and other burial sites

8.6.4: Can we devise a typology to record and classify more effectively the interiors of ecclesiastical buildings, their decoration and monuments?

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Active
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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL

8.7 Battlefields and fortifications

8.7.1: How best can we record and study battlefield sites, particularly of the Civil War period (e.g. Naseby)?

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Active
Date accepted:
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Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Investigate graveyards and other burial sites, Investigate Civil War defences, siege works and battlefields

8.7.2: How can we refine our knowledge of Civil War defences and siege works?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Investigate Civil War defences, siege works and battlefields

8.7.3: What was the impact of the Civil War upon urban development (notably the demolition of suburbs, as at Leicester, and post-siege development)?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Investigate Civil War defences, siege works and battlefields

8.8 Material culture

8.8.1: How was pottery distributed across the region and can we identify competition between regional potteries?

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8.8.2: Can we establish a dated type series for ceramics (building in particular upon unpublished urban pit and well groups)?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Develop further the study of ceramic assemblages

8.8.3: Can we identify the changing material culture of the urban and rural poor, the emerging middle classes and the aristocracy?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Develop further the study of ceramic assemblages

8.8.4: Were there different patterns of consumption between town and countryside and between different agricultural regions?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Develop further the study of ceramic assemblages

8.8.5: What may be deduced about the symbolic use of material culture (e.g. in social competition)?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL
Linked Strategy(s):
Develop further the study of ceramic assemblages

3 Comments

  1. vowen2

    Organisation
    Trent & Peak Archaeology
    Site/Project Name
    Lenton Priory
    Parish
    Lenton
    County/Unitary Authority
    Nottingham City
    NGR
    SK 55151 38755
    HER No
    Awaiting deposition
    OASIS ID
    Trentpea1-204664(3)
    Museum No
    To be finalised
    Report and Web Link
    The Lenton Priory Project. A Report on a Community Excavation
    Agenda Topic(s)

    8.6.1 What was the impact of the Reformation upon ecclesiastical buildings and monastic estates?
    Research Objective(s)

    8G Study the post-Dissolution re-use of monastic structures and the continuity of monastic estates
    How has this work addressed the Research Agenda and Strategy?

    The excavation of Trench 3 identified the remains of the early 12th century conventual church of Lenton Priory. A post-Dissolution re-use phase was identified which utilised the northern aisle of the church. It is unclear what function this building played, but the relatively delicate mortar surface is indicative of a domestic function rather than a purpose such as livestock corralling or crop storage.

    It is believed that stonework from the monastic estate was quarried for large-scale building projects around Nottinghamshire from 1538 onwards and that the priory buildings were soon demolished. This does not fit with the excavated evidence, which demonstrates re-use of some of the monastic buildings in the post-Dissolution period.

  2. vowen2

    Organisation
    Trent & Peak Archaeology
    Site/Project Name
    We Dig the Castle
    County/Unitary Authority
    Nottingham City
    NGR
    SK 56985 39485
    Report and Web Link
    http://tparchaeology.co.uk/wedigthecastle.htm
    Agenda Topic(s)

    8.2.3 What horticultural methods, planting schemes and water management methods were employed by garden planners?
    8.2.2 How were garden designs influenced by changing fashions and by a familiarity with Continental garden styles?
    Research Objective(s)

    8D Investigate developments in estate and garden design and their landscape context
    How has this work addressed the Research Agenda and Strategy?

    For the last three years Trent & Peak Archaeology has conducted a community training dig within the Outer Bailey of Nottingham Castle, under a project entitled ‘We Dig the Castle’. These excavations have begun to elaborate the layout of the formal gardens of the 17th century Ducal Palace and how this layout evolved into a more informal parkland arrangement in the 18th century, which was in line with the fashions of the time. Features identified may also indicate the presence of a kitchen garden within the excavation area during the Post-Medieval period.

  3. vowen2

    Organisation
    MOLA Northampton
    Site/Project Name
    Project Angel
    Parish
    All Saints
    County/Unitary Authority
    Northamptonshire
    NGR
    SP 75501 60264
    HER No
    ENN107673
    OASIS ID
    molanort1-308684
    Agenda Topic(s)

    8.1.2 How were towns organised and planned, and how did population growth impact upon their internal spatial organisation?
    8.1.4 What can studies of environmental data, artefacts and structural remains tell us about variations in diet, living conditions and status?
    8.8.2 Can we establish a dated type series for ceramics (building in particular upon unpublished urban pit and well groups)?
    Research Objective(s)

    8I Develop further the study of ceramic assemblages
    How has this work addressed the Research Agenda and Strategy?

    The project is currently at Updated Project Design stage, and is a work in progress.

    The site lies in the Norman “New Borough” of Northampton and was preceded by significant medieval occupation, malting and baking, followed by clearance and abandonment. A single late medieval stone tenement survived on St Johns Street that was extended and refurbished in the late 15th century. The building had three clay-floored rooms, a kitchen range with bread oven and hearths, and a yard with outhouse and wells. The house lay within an area of otherwise abandoned space, until the 18th-century.

    Another building was established on Fetter Street after c1450, which was the first archaeological indication for this street¬タルs existence. The Fetter Street tenement had a relatively short duration and pottery in the abandonment and demolition levels suggested that it ceased to exist by c1550.

    The period of the 17th¬タモ18th centuries was marked by dark loamy soils associated with gardens and orchards, until the construction of stables and terraced buildings, and the historically recorded developments thereafter. Much of this is likely to reflect late post-medieval town planning and economic expansion.

    Further investigation of the shellfish and animal bone will provide more in-depth analysis of the early post-medieval assemblages. It will contribute to the study of diet, craft/industrial resource exploitation, social/economic status and site conditions through waste disposal.

    The existing Northamptonshire Ceramic Type Series (CTS) forms the basis for all pottery coding. All of the pottery has been coded to the CTS for the present report. Previously unknown or unidentified ceramics are continually added to the CTS and published on a site by site basis until such a time as funding is available to collate these additions.

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