A number of overarching comments came out of the workshop discussions for the framework that should be taken into consideration for the Industrial and 20th century period:
Links with Q44
A programme of systematic palaeoenvironmental sampling should be incorporated into each excavation in order to ascertain the presence and extent of invasive floral species.
Synthesis of published and unpublished studies. Landscape surveys. Thematic surveys. Sewers/sluices/watercourses/weirs/reservoirs.
Recent emphasis on flood defence/alleviation works provides opportunity to record through development control. Threat to weirs from European Directive on re-establishing natural river courses. Need to record and understand their significance. Look at the distribution, character and date of well houses, review published surveys, establish a regional typology and identify the best examples, significance, rarity etc. Review our understanding of 19th and early 20th century turbines utilising factory catalogues, excavated examples, surveyed surviving turbines.
For example: identify how the late C18 enclosure awards and C19 expansion of enclosures into uplands affected field patterns, roads and farmsteads in region. Examine impact of urban expansion on agriculture – on buildings and farm landscape (rising demand for food prompted shift to dairy/cattle raising from mixed arable)
Purpose-built model/industrial farms are a well- understood building type. Less is known about the extent to which existing vernacular farmsteads were adapted and improved in the C19. It is worth focusing on particular areas that lack study eg. Cumbria outside the Lakes, west Lancs, south Cheshire etc. Include food production and preservation, bone mills, tanneries, rendering. Links with Q7
Two separate themes. (1)Technology in country houses eg. heating, lighting, lifts, communications etc (see HE book by Marilyn Palmer and Ian West); now a well-understood area. (2) Innovation and impact of industrialisation on estates. Less understood. Latter could include evidence of mineral exploitation on estates (eg. coal mining in S Lancs) and impact of canals and railways on estate landscapes. How did country house parks of the gentry develop in the region after 1750? Potential cooperative project with country garden trusts and national bodies to review transition from medieval deek parks (gentry and monastic houses) into designed parks, especially but not exclusively those ascribed to leading landscape designation (eg. Brown etc). Identify and examine model farms, which were mainly related to investment by country estates. Look at influence of contemporary publications on agricultural improvements and architects’ designs, compared to vernacular of post-medieval period. Links with Q6
This question overlaps with the post-med period and focuses on trends in landscape design. Prior to late 18th century Brownian naturalistic ‘park’ landscaping, there was an earlier late 17th/early 18th century phase of formal geometric landscaping that survives at some sites in the NW (eg.Dunham, Lowther, Stonyhurst) Potential cooperative project with country garden trusts and national bodies to review transition from medieval deer parks (gentry and monastic houses) into designed parks, especially but not exclusively those ascribed to leading landscape designation (eg. Brown etc).
A specific theme in rural settlement relates to villas – houses built in rural areas by the newly rich, often associated with contemporary designed landscapes. Important in the Lakes, and well-researched there by Menuge et al. Less well understood elsewhere, for example how was wealth generated in urban areas reflected in villa development in Lancs and Cheshire and where are good extant examples?
‘Utopian’ needs definition – as some industrial colonies were not ‘utopian’, but purely practical – homes for workers built next to the mill/mine etc. This is a broad question and could be divided into industrial colonies eg. mill villages such as Styal and Carrbrook, Cumbrian quarry and mining villages and a separate theme for rural estate villages eg. Lowther, Cheshire estates etc. Consider the impact on areas such as the Lake District eg. Coniston, Elterwater (examples of villages growing out of mining, quarrying and gunpowder), Keswick, and Glenridding.
Links with Q18
Historic research including historic mapping analysis, Historic Landscape Characterisation data, aerial photography, site surveys, evaluation, excavation, finds assemblage analysis. Target council-owned parks that were former private estates and mansions. Look at the impact on historic buildings and landscapes of the C20 shift from private to municipal ownership in urban areas and how their significance is affected. Examine rate of loss of houses, landscapes and estate buildings, and overlay of formal recreational facilities and landscaping etc. Currently an ‘at risk’ group of assets.
Review historic map analysis from desk based assessments, landscape surveys aided by historic map, aerial photograph and LIDAR analysis. Archaeological potential of sites of C19 temporary ‘navvie’ villages built for workers on railway, reservoir and other infrastructure projects.
Identify and record rural historic environment features to understand their significance. For country estates, include deer barns and stables, and less understood buildings such as game larders. Also look at bull pens, hen coops, pig sties, middens, dovecotes, artificial bird roosts, 1920’s/30’s documentations of older buildings, synthesis of pre-c onstruction surveys. Regional “expected” distribution of building types versus outliers eg. bank barns Dovecotes regional variations, roost incorporated in barns and free standing examples at risk. This work should lead to more focused questions on asset types or areas lacking study, to understand significance. Establish a typology of regional building traditions. this was done by Brunskill for Cumbria, but more needs to be done on parts of Cheshire and Lancashire. Identify impact of agricultural improvements from the 1750 to the 20th centuries. Define intra-regional or temporal variations in the pattern of rural vernacular architecture.
Use synthesis of survey data to inform our understanding of historic field systems and enclosures and intra-regional variation. Review Historic Landscape Characterisation, estate and farm surveys, identify gaps in coverage. Synthesis of farm landscapes in context. Earth banks, ditches, historic hedgerows, dry stone walls. Digitisation of Tithe maps. Historic Landscape Characterisation.
Identify and research the landless rural poor. Establish a typology of regional building traditions and significant examples. Evidence for rural squatters’ buildings and communities. . Compare with contemporary homeless?
Farm houses incorporating industrial processing. Include rural industrial workers’ housing. Identify typology and significant examples of rural workers’ housing related to industry Links with Q11
Study new use of deserted and abandoned settlements through Historic Landscape Characterisation, landscape studies. Include village clearances for late 18th century park development. Covered under Post-Med period?
Landscape study, historic development and change of villages close to large country estates. Relocation and planning of new estate villages as part of new landscape design, and rebuilding/improvements to estate villages – important theme in Cheshire in 19th century. Examine how estates reflect their wealth and identity through the use of distinctive architectural styles. Did the boom in Victorian estate improvements impact on the local building industry eg. brick and tile works, cast-iron, timber yards etc?
Undertake an overview of the impact on the historic landscape of the new towns of the Industrial Revolution and the new monument types developed within them. Examine how industrialisation drove urban growth and new towns.
A great deal of targeted excavation has taken place over the last 11 years in Greater Manchester historic industrial centres, especially Manchester and Salford. This has been targeted on back-to-back and blind-back housing, especially cellar ‘dwellings’ made infamous by mid-19th century social commentators. It is now time to review this large corpus of data and determine the key results and future research directions. Combined series of research eg. PhDs/MAs. More training and opportunities needed to enable volunteers to engage with this type of excavation. Possibly incorporate more community engagement in these projects through planning.
For example sewerage, drainage, drinking water, toilets etc. Historic research (social commentators, press, local acts, infrastructure projects, town planning, buildings such as public baths and wash houses), excavations of urban dwellings, urban building surveys of urban buildings, sewers etc.
Study of this transition through targeting of medieval urban cores: review of Extensive Urban Surveys, Historic Landscape Characterisation, historic mapping analysis, excavation evidence. How do we pick up items of interest in buildings not listed or locally listed? Link with local building study groups. Make sure data goes to HERs.
Targeted historic building surveys through planning system and research projects, review published literature and plethora of grey literature reports on historic building surveys, documentary research. Include gaps in coverage by the likes of RCHME surveys – perhaps VAG surveys and LHSS. Links with Q38
Take a holistic approach, taking account of architectural history.Target urban and suburban areas of towns/cities where rapid industrialisation and growth took place. Use Historic Landscape Characterisation, historic mapping, review desk based assessments and urban survey data, examine relationship of early transport development with growth of suburbia. Aim to identify significant examples of eg. suburban villa development (well-understood in eg Victoria Park, Manchester but less well in other towns and cities
Look at industrial/entrepreneurial housing. Examine how well social settlements are understood and surveyed. Look at methodology of well-studied examples such as Port Sunlight and apply to others.
Assess urban building types of the first half of the 20th century relating for example to suburbs and housing estates.
Assess urban building types of the 20th century. Historic England ‘Aspects of suburban landscapes 1850-2015’ (by Hanson & Partington, 2015). Use Historic Landscape Characterisation for urban areas. Architectural history is an important source for the 20th century. Break down in to new buildings types and specialisms such as industry, commerce, municipal, technology, health, education, housing. Important to focus on the gaps. Key issue is to understand significance before 20th century buildings are obsolete and lost.
Review building regulations against published/unpublished HE Use Level 3 or 4 surveys where detailed recording is able to demonstrate impact. Include residential such as cellar dwellings (multiple occupation of single family dwellings and role of renters).
Townscape studies, Historic Landscape Characterisation, Conservation Area studies, Extensive Urban Surveys. Where are significant examples?
Synthesis and review published and unpublished surveys. Identify significant examples.
Workers housing beyond terraces, infilled yards. Search published material including excavations. Include courts, study whole land plot. Include workshops behind the Chester Rows. Links with Q39
Odd fellows and social welfare, YMCA buildings and design. Include social punishment? Also reformatory schools. Historic England publication ‘Buildings of the Labour Movement’, 2013, provides a useful guide.
Firstly, we need a clear definition of what constitutes ‘slave money’ as this is too vague. Slavery houses built on proceeds, include Lancaster and Liverpool. Include both merchants’ country and urban houses. What about the spread of Atlantic slave trade outside Liverpool eg. evidence in Whitehaven? Impact of slavery on built environment. Lune Valley houses. Quaker Bankers. Identify significant extant examples.
20th century suburbs and planning. Include Prefabs. Include Garden City estates. Utilise existing surveys such as the Greater Manchester Urban Historic Landscape Characterisation study. Identify significant examples.
Former corner shops to department stores to malls. New subject on shopping trolleys (national typology?), retail structures, retail and transport infrastructure, local/out of town centres, affects of shopping on urban and suburban town planning. See Historic England publication on Shopping Parades by Kathryn Morrison 2016.
Synthesis of published and unpublished surveys in the region and compare to nationally published studies. Look at decommissioning as well, and re-use/demolition. Nationally significant prison architects where involved in the NW (eg. Thomas Harrison, William Blackburn, etc). Harrison is already well-researched. See Historic England publication on English Prisons by Davies, Brodie and Croom, 2002. Link with Q25
Townscapes are not just built structures but include natural elements eg. tree-lined streets in 19th century suburbs. Are these valued and protected? Use historic landscape characterisation data to look at concordance between Conservation Areas and well-preserved industrial landscapes, also surveys such as those for textile mills. Both of these have been briefly examined in Greater Manchester but much more could be done.
A good example is Birkdale. How many are covered/protected by Conservation Area designation? Identify significant examples.
Links with Q1
Access to faculty records. Funerary memorials in churches and burial grounds. Investigate the development and form of graveyards and funerary architecture. Graveyards and churchyard extensions. Crematoriums and mortuary chapels. Cemetery / chapel types, land use and design. Burial grounds of England project by Church of England (digital surveys and use of volunteers)
Synagogues, Mosques, Hindu temples – development and architecture. See Historic England publications eg ‘The British Mosque’ by Shahed Saleem 2018, ‘Jewish Heritage in Britain and Ireland’ by Sharman Kadish 2015, ‘Building Bhuddism’ 2016. Use studies of Non-Conformist places of worship as a model. Non-Christian places of worship – deserves separate question?
Re-use/ Re-ordering places of worship from one faith to another. Investigate the development of religious and social buildings. Various denominations of Christian buildings.
Roman Catholic churches are being lost due to diocese decisions, identify and record – but see national survey of RC churches per Dioceses, a well-researched area (AHP). Focus on less well understood RC buildings eg. seminaries, convents and bishops housing, and identify significant examples. Links with Q50.
This is especially needed for those industries that grew in importance in the early 20th century such as chemicals, automobile and early aircraft engineering. Equally more research is needed into the smaller but highly significant 19th and 20th century workshop based industries such as nail and bolt making and the regionally significant tool making industry of south-west Lancashire. Automobile Industry including possibly unique survival at Vulcan Motor Works, Crossen, Southport.
Identify urban factories and rural workshops, to tie products to source with identifiable typologies and to examine differences in technology, organisation and marketing between the large factories and smaller rural potteries. There is a need to source the products of brick and tile kilns and to establish typologies. Early brickfields seldom survive but the below-ground investigation of such sites, as well as surveys of later extant brickworks, should be a priority to understand the technological development of the industry within the region. Window glass: technological and regional chronology of crown, cylindrical and flat glass. Development of factory line system eg. Hoffman kilns versus pot kilns. Old Monuments Protection Programme work needs review and revision. Metal detector surveys in Cheshire provide highly detailed, well-located assemblages of metal artefacts with useful evidence for socio-economic change through 18th to 19th centuries rural communities.
A survey of textile mill sites in Cumbria is necessary to complement those for Cheshire, Greater Manchester and Lancashire. It should include an examination of their location in relation to the pre-industrial distribution of medieval and post-medieval water mills, and the impact of Industrial Age transport systems. Survey work should be published in some form for Lancashire (preferably a book). NB. mills survey recently published by Historic England. Synthesis of more poorly understood major industrial production monument types such as engineering, hatting, textile finishing etc. Need county surveys similar to the mills studies to understand significance, rarity and vulnerability? Links with Q64.
Use Historic England guides, building surveys, landscape surveys. Links with Q64 and Q65. Building surveys of power producing works should be undertaken to develop our understanding of power production and its evolution. Re-evaluation of recorded house sites, mills and public buildings can be used to track changes in power consumption through this time period. Links with Q61
Using techniques like activity mapping to understand the interaction of process and employee.
De-industrialisation and commercial (plus non-commercial re-use).
Establish a typology of regional building traditions. Research the development of industry and its impact upon landscape and settlement morphology.
Academic buildings and innovation buildings. Academic research. University Theses. Archived Planning records. Include Mechanics Institutes and Public Schools.
Synthesis of published and unpublished work. Identify gaps. Undertake county/regional surveys based on textile mills survey model. Look at: Chemical works, Foundries, Breweries, Textile Finishing Works (dyeing, printing, bleaching), Hatting, Paper Making. Links to Q58 and Q59.
Examine nuclear power, coal and oil fired power stations, other types including urban. Use Historic England guide.
All redundant non-designated gas holders are currently being demolished. They are being recorded as part of this national programme. Include 20th century renewables including solar and wind power. Q55.
Themes include: concrete, steel framing, fire proofing, cavity walling. Link between fabric and built heritage types: timber framing to concrete and steel.
Review published surveys. Establish regional typology and identify the best examples, significance, rarity etc.
Map and record through Historic Landscape Characterisation, coastal surveys etc. Identify extent of coverage and undertake surveys and historic research on poorly understood examples.
Map known and potential trade routes, especially salt routes. Look at wider context: economy, landscape/settlement impact, industrialisation, etc.
Include inland canals and river infrastructure. Link with Q94.
Historic building surveys, documentary research, review publications on the subject and previous unpublished studies. Town plans, company records, deposited plans and finds assemblages.
Link with Q74 and Q79.
Many aspects of WW1 training (‘practice trenches’) and Home Front logistics (eg. remount depots) have received some attention during the WW1 centenaries, but synthesis, further documentary research and plugging of lacunae is required. Include arms production sites – are there any left? Research the urban infrastructure of war. WWII related structures. Munitions/gun emplacements. Ammunition factories. More definition required.
Identify what these are e.g. place name evidence, statues, association with historic buildings etc. and propose appropriate recording and research strategies. Campaign buildings, police clubs, statues and memorials. Broaden out into the archaeology of dissent and reform.
Research the urban infrastructure of war. Identify and record rural historic environment features. Link with Q70 and Q79.
Survey to identify military sites that have been adapted for other purposes. Include former filling factories and ammunition stores
Review known sites and how well they are recorded/mapped,eg. Training grounds/camps survival (Worsley New Hall). Link with Q77.
Historic landscape characterisation, landscape survey, social interaction oral evidence, structural remains etc. Adaption of areas to meet the military needs. Include housing for workers and protest communities. Link with Q76.
Review of published/unpublished surveys and descriptions, Defence of Britain database. Map locations, types and survival, identify rare examples. National Mapping Programme can help with this – usually visible on 1940s aerial photographs.
Historic map analysis and other historical resources to create database of known barrack sites and review their survival.
Review Defence of Britain study provides good national framework but need to consider regional responses ie..home guard, drill halls, POW camp and internment camps, defence lines including tank traps and their production. Hidden military stores (guns, munitions). Normally attributed to the Home Guard in case of invasion. Air raid shelters stored ammunition.
Used German military photographs, plans of bomb strikes in towns/cities, newspaper clippings, local history articles/publications, etc.
Use map reviews. Include industrial site history reviews, oral evidence, government documentaries/archive.
Also need to identify historic allotment s and leisure gardens. Where are the significant examples?
Buildings such as theatres, cinemas, public baths, libraries etc. Identify significant examples. Use building surveys to record public buildings, region wide surveys to catalogue the loss of public buildings from this period. Re-evaluate of archives of building surveys and redevelopment to track changes to building function.
Evaluation of media archives to record tourist advertisements, use the historic Landscape Characterisation to track developments of tourist destinations in the region. Cartographic surveys to understand the impact of tourism on the regions landscape. Examine the impact of railways and tourism on towns, eg. Coniston, Keswick, Marple. Cycle touring a popular working class pursuit from early 20th century – is there any historic built environment evidence ? Lake District well understood, but tourism in Pennines and coasts perhaps less so?
Building surveys of extant sports venues, landscape surveys of areas known for localised sport to identify any archaeological remains. Include re-use of de-industrialised urban spaces eg. for music, night clubs (Hacienda) etc. Climbing club huts in the Lakes at forefront of developments within mountaineering. Natural features can be key to this eg. Napes Needle for British Mountaineering. Well-researched in the Lake District for WHS but how well research are other areas? Analyse changes to racecourse locations and layouts including associated buildings eg. Castle Irwell, Salford (GMPR publication). Examine how gentry pursuits such as fox hunting, game shooting and horse-racing impacted upon rural landscapes and buildings?
to establish their social setting, technological development, architectural affinities and cultural role. (7.3:7.26)
Research the development of industry and its impact upon landscape and settlement morphology.
Establish typologies and chronologies of bridges. Identify gaps in understanding.
Collate published data, identify gaps, provide typology, overview and assess relative significance. See for instance the useful studies for Runpast Publishing on Manchester and Wigan coalfield railways.
Survey of early petrol stations, motor transport including, garages, bus stations, and car showrooms. Include motor sports. Develop understanding of architectural response to the development of car infrastructure.
Identify extent and record/protect rare or especially significant examples, for instance coaching inns, stabling, bridleways, paddocks, racecourses etc. Commercial, urban stables near railway stations (eg. Liverpool Road, Manchester) Domestic stabling.
Review published and unpublished literature on canals and waterways. Synthesise and identify gaps.
This is a key question. Look at the Manchester methodology, Historic Landscape Characterisation, Activity analysis, Area Surveys
Research architectural studies, planning/building records, develop typology plus targeted survey. Could make a suitable PhD.
Focus on buildings that illustrate increasing diversity, such as University buildings/campuses and examine 20th cent adaptions.
In the light of recent county level textile mill surveys and loss rates, we need to re-visit listing criteria to see if they are still fit for purpose. Look at mills survival rates, high point of building type and subsequent loss, degradation of power features, survival of component parts, new information since previous surveys on architects, building methods, development of technology. Extend surveys to cover gaps eg. North-east Cheshire, Cumbria?
Review which types have been well researched and surveyed and where the gaps are, eg. good national study of schools but are they well represented/understood in the region? Look at universities, mechanical institutes, libraries etc. Include boarding schools.
Look at growth of stained glass and decorative metal working eg. George Wragge of Salford.
Review of listed and locally listed examples, historic map and Google Street view analysis, county surveys similar to the mills studies. Geographic location and development of local services.
Social buildings, mission rooms, temperance houses and pubs. Asylums and infirmaries, work houses and poor houses. Synthesis of published/unpublished work and review gaps