The Industrial and 20th Century Period

Key overview statements to address for the Industrial and 20th century period:

A number of overarching comments came out of the workshop discussions for the framework that should be taken into consideration for the Industrial and 20th century period:

  • Changes have been made to the theme headings to reflect the period.
  • Recent investigations have seen lots of important analysis on human remains.
  • Food production from rural/farms is an important theme that needs mentioning.
  • The rural poor of this period relate to contemporary homelessness.
  • For the Environment theme, the landscape change due to invasive flora/fauna and development pressure are key aspects.
  • There are several overlapping questions which need resolving and turning into proper questions, and some should be moved to the overarching strategy section (done).
  • Some questions should be amended to integrate archaeology and architecture (done).
  • Place based research (holistic approach) in a landscape context is important.
  • We should recognise sub-regional variation eg. houses, mills, public buildings etc.
  • Changing building materials is a key theme: glass, steel, cast-iron framework etc.
  • Dealing with other evidence bases eg. photographs, social history incl. oral histories, vital for this period.
  • For the Post Medieval and Industrial & Modern periods generally, why do we do archaeology and how can we ensure that it isn’t just an expensive way of telling us what we already know (from written resources)? We need to stress the unique ability to reveal/investigate demolished sites and enable reconstruction.
  • How do we capture the process of industrialisation? This is a high level question which has been rather overlooked due to a focus on smaller questions.
  • Development of travel infrastructure for people and goods, transatlantic trade and population movements are especially key themes for the North West.
  • How do we incorporate Britain’s archaeological and architectural influence on its Imperial world, and that Imperial world’s impact on Britain?
  • How and why do we separate post-medieval and industrial archaeology? Key factors that changed in the industrial period onwards relate to the sheer scale and diversity of the resource and to how buildings were built – the increasing input of architects, surveyors and engineers resulted in documentary evidence alongside business, municipal and other records. We aren’t so reliant on archaeology, so other research techniques such as architectural history and social history are relevant.  We need to be more focused to deal with the scale.
  • Overarching Strategies should include digitisation and management of archive plans, engaging local archives/ local history/specialist groups, synthesis of information held by local/specialist societies, holistic research applications, accessing PhDs, area based studies, landscape context.
  • For buildings, an important theme is threat due to shifts in the socio-economic trends and political policy eg. do we understand enough about the significance of banks, pubs, police stations, municipal buildings, high street shops, post offices to inform decisions about change and potential loss? 

Industrial and 20th century Research Questions

Environment

Ind01: What evidence is there for the impact of Industrialisation on health, diet and natural resources?

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Excavations should recover palaeoenvironmental data from cess pits and other suitable cut features to inform on diet, health, natural resource use and consumption patterns. (7.1:7.9) Opportunities need to be taken for the use of palaeoenvironmental and geochemical analyses of the historic environmental impacts of specific industries and industrialisation in general. (7.1:7.10) Links to evidence from burials/skeletons (dealt with in Q47) Links with Q44

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BURIAL, HUMAN REMAINS, GEOCHEMICAL SURVEY, CESS PIT, Palaeoenvironmental Analysis, Health, Diet

Ind02: What is the environmental impact of invasive flora and fauna introduced into the North West during this period?

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A programme of systematic palaeoenvironmental sampling should be incorporated into each excavation in order to ascertain the presence and extent of invasive floral species.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, Zooarchaeology, Palaeoenvironmental Analysis, Archaeobotany, Environment

Ind03: How can we develop a better understanding of water treatment and management structures and their relative significance for urban drinking water?

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Synthesis of published and unpublished studies. Landscape surveys. Thematic surveys. Sewers/sluices/watercourses/weirs/reservoirs.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, Reservoir, Sluice, Watercourse, Weir, Landscape, Synthesis

Ind04: How well do we understand the survival and significance of historic water management features for industrial purposes including power and textile processing?

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Recent emphasis on flood defence/alleviation works provides opportunity to record through development control. Threat to weirs from European Directive on re-establishing natural river courses. Need to record and understand their significance. Look at the distribution, character and date of well houses, review published surveys, establish a regional typology and identify the best examples, significance, rarity etc. Review our understanding of 19th and early 20th century turbines utilising factory catalogues, excavated examples, surveyed surviving turbines.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, TEXTILE INDUSTRY SITE, Well House, Turbine, Water Power Production Site, Weir, Flood Defence, River, typology, Documentary Archive Research, Synthesis

Rural Settlement, Farming and Agriculture

Ind05: How well understood is change and development of the agrarian landscape in response to industrialisation and enclosure?

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The relationship between enclosure, settlement and industry needs to be more closely examined (7.2:7.11) Study the development of the agrarian landscape in those parts of the region that have previously attracted little attention. (7.2: 7.12) For example: identify how the late C18 enclosure awards and C19 expansion of enclosures into uplands affected field patterns, roads and farmsteads in region. Examine impact of urban expansion on agriculture – on buildings and farm landscape (rising demand for food prompted shift to dairy/cattle raising from mixed arable)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, SETTLEMENT, ENCLOSURE, TRANSPORT, Urban Settlement, Urban Extension, Landscape, Diet, Rural community, Synthesis, Agriculture, Settlement pattern

Ind06: How did the industrial farm evolve and farming practices develop during this period?

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Investigate the development of the industrialised farm and the impact of technological change, including the use of power and mechanisation, on farm layout and building types. A TICCIH approach to identification and classification of monument types may be useful in such research. (7.2:7.15) Purpose-built model/industrial farms are a well- understood building type. Less is known about the extent to which existing vernacular farmsteads were adapted and improved in the C19. In part using existing data contained in the HLCs and building upon the RCHME’s study of farmsteads, produce a regional study of farming in the period 1750-1950 that examines areas of continuity and change and highlights areas of rare, regionally specific and innovative practices. (7.2:7.13) It is worth focusing on particular areas that lack study eg. Cumbria outside the Lakes, west Lancs, south Cheshire etc. Include food production and preservation, bone mills, tanneries, rendering. Links with Q7

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MONUMENT, INDUSTRIAL, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, ARCHITECTURE, TANNERY, FARM, Render, Bone Mill, typology, technology, Economy, Agriculture, Land use, Settlement pattern

Ind07: How can we understand the role of country houses and estates as innovators and consumers of technology during this period?

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Examine the country house and estate as innovators and consumers of technology. (7.2:7.14) Two separate themes. (1)Technology in country houses eg. heating, lighting, lifts, communications etc (see HE book by Marilyn Palmer and Ian West); now a well-understood area. (2) Innovation and impact of industrialisation on estates. Less understood. Latter could include evidence of mineral exploitation on estates (eg. coal mining in S Lancs) and impact of canals and railways on estate landscapes. How did country house parks of the gentry develop in the region after 1750? Potential cooperative project with country garden trusts and national bodies to review transition from medieval deek parks (gentry and monastic houses) into designed parks, especially but not exclusively those ascribed to leading landscape designation (eg. Brown etc). Identify and examine model farms, which were mainly related to investment by country estates. Look at influence of contemporary publications on agricultural improvements and architects’ designs, compared to vernacular of post-medieval period. Links with Q6

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, POST MEDIEVAL, TRANSPORT, MINERAL, ESTATE BUILDING, DEER PARK, COUNTRY HOUSE, COAL MINING SITE, Documentary Research, Canal, Landscape Park, Railway, society, technology, Landscape

Ind08: To what extent were post-medieval geometric garden landscapes swept away by post-1750 landscaping?

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This question overlaps with the post-med period and focuses on trends in landscape design. Prior to late 18th century Brownian naturalistic ‘park’ landscaping, there was an earlier late 17th/early 18th century phase of formal geometric landscaping that survives at some sites in the NW (eg.Dunham, Lowther, Stonyhurst) Potential cooperative project with country garden trusts and national bodies to review transition from medieval deer parks (gentry and monastic houses) into designed parks, especially but not exclusively those ascribed to leading landscape designation (eg. Brown etc).

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, POST MEDIEVAL, DEER PARK, COUNTRY PARK, Garden, Landscape, Synthesis

Ind09: How does the nature of rural settlement change during this period?

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Map settlement change across the region from 1770 to the present day, to promote understanding of the relationship of the current rural settlement pattern to that of the 18th century and to provide a more secure basis for regressive projections of earlier settlement patterns. (7.2:7.17) A regional study of rural desertion to identify patterns and trends would be worthwhile in its own right, but it may in such a well-documented period, offer insights on desertions from earlier periods. (7.2:7.18) A specific theme in rural settlement relates to villas – houses built in rural areas by the newly rich, often associated with contemporary designed landscapes. Important in the Lakes, and well-researched there by Menuge et al. Less well understood elsewhere, for example how was wealth generated in urban areas reflected in villa development in Lancs and Cheshire and where are good extant examples?

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, VILLA, Documentary Research, Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement, Settlement pattern

Ind10: How are consumption patterns linked to social status and location during this period?

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Excavations of a range of preferably well-documented deserted rural settlement sites to more precisely understand the nature of rural settlement abandonment and examine changes in consumption patterns linked to social status through time. (7.2:7.19)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, DESERTED SETTLEMENT, Rural Settlement, society, Diet

Ind11: How do planned and new settlements evolve at this time?

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Studies of the physical remains of utopian settlements to examine their impact on the landscape, reasons for success or failure and the influence of utopian ideals on settlement organisation and where applicable building form and function. (7.2:7.20) ‘Utopian’ needs definition – as some industrial colonies were not ‘utopian’, but purely practical – homes for workers built next to the mill/mine etc. This is a broad question and could be divided into industrial colonies eg. mill villages such as Styal and Carrbrook, Cumbrian quarry and mining villages and a separate theme for rural estate villages eg. Lowther, Cheshire estates etc. Consider the impact on areas such as the Lake District eg. Coniston, Elterwater (examples of villages growing out of mining, quarrying and gunpowder), Keswick, and Glenridding. Studies of industrial landscapes should examine the presence of indicators of authority and social control to illuminate the wider impact of industrialisation on society in general and on individual communities. (7.2:7.36) Links with Q18

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, SETTLEMENT, MILL, Survey, Utopian Community Village, Industrial Village, Landscape, Settlement pattern

Ind12: How did large houses and estates decline, especially during the early 20th century?

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Historic research including historic mapping analysis, Historic Landscape Characterisation data, aerial photography, site surveys, evaluation, excavation, finds assemblage analysis. Target council-owned parks that were former private estates and mansions. Look at the impact on historic buildings and landscapes of the C20 shift from private to municipal ownership in urban areas and how their significance is affected. Examine rate of loss of houses, landscapes and estate buildings, and overlay of formal recreational facilities and landscaping etc. Currently an ‘at risk’ group of assets.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, INDUSTRIAL, COUNTRY ESTATE, BUILDING, TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, COUNTRY HOUSE, Assessment And Analysis, Survey, Urban Settlement, Collections research, Landscape, Synthesis

Ind13: How did temporary areas of construction and industry (e.g. tips, utility sites, quarries, canals etc) change, develop and impact upon the landscape?

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Review historic map analysis from desk based assessments, landscape surveys aided by historic map, aerial photograph and LIDAR analysis. Archaeological potential of sites of C19 temporary ‘navvie’ villages built for workers on railway, reservoir and other infrastructure projects.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
LIDAR SURVEY, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, INDUSTRIAL, INDUSTRIAL SITE, QUARRY, TRANSPORT, CONSTRUCTION DEBRIS, Survey, Documentary Research, Desk Based Assessment, Reservoir, Canal, Railway, Construction Works, Urban Settlement, Landscape

Ind14: How can we establish a typology of and assess the significance of buildings and other structures associated with country and farming estates?

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Identify and record rural historic environment features to understand their significance. For country estates, include deer barns and stables, and less understood buildings such as game larders. Also look at bull pens, hen coops, pig sties, middens, dovecotes, artificial bird roosts, 1920’s/30’s documentations of older buildings, synthesis of pre-c onstruction surveys. Regional “expected” distribution of building types versus outliers eg. bank barns Dovecotes regional variations, roost incorporated in barns and free standing examples at risk. This work should lead to more focused questions on asset types or areas lacking study, to understand significance. Establish a typology of regional building traditions. this was done by Brunskill for Cumbria, but more needs to be done on parts of Cheshire and Lancashire. Identify impact of agricultural improvements from the 1750 to the 20th centuries. Define intra-regional or temporal variations in the pattern of rural vernacular architecture.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, COUNTRY ESTATE, MIDDEN, BUILDING, STRUCTURE, PIGSTY, HEN BATTERY, ARCHITECTURE, BULL PEN, Survey, Bird Cage, Game Larder, Deer Cote, Dovecote, Stables, typology, Synthesis, Agriculture

Ind15: How well recorded and understood are farming landscapes and field patterns?

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Use synthesis of survey data to inform our understanding of historic field systems and enclosures and intra-regional variation. Review Historic Landscape Characterisation, estate and farm surveys, identify gaps in coverage. Synthesis of farm landscapes in context. Earth banks, ditches, historic hedgerows, dry stone walls. Digitisation of Tithe maps. Historic Landscape Characterisation.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, ENCLOSURE, COUNTRY ESTATE, DITCH, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, FARM, EARTHWORK, Survey, Documentary Research, Hedgerow Survey, Field, Landscape, Synthesis, Agriculture

Ind16: How well surveyed are purpose-designed 20th century farms?

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Review surveyed examples, develop typology, and identify significant examples and gaps.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, FARM BUILDING, FARM, Survey, typology, Agriculture

Ind17: How can we enhance our understanding of the rural poor?

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Identify and research the landless rural poor. Establish a typology of regional building traditions and significant examples. Evidence for rural squatters’ buildings and communities. . Compare with contemporary homeless?

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, ARCHITECTURE, Rural Settlement, typology, society, Rural community

Ind18: How can we identify the impact of industrialisation on rural dwellings?

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Farm houses incorporating industrial processing. Include rural industrial workers’ housing. Identify typology and significant examples of rural workers’ housing related to industry Links with Q11

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, DWELLING, FARM BUILDING, FARM, Workers Village, Workers Cottage, Rural Settlement, typology

Ind19: In what ways and to what extent have abandoned settlements been re-used?

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Study new use of deserted and abandoned settlements through Historic Landscape Characterisation, landscape studies. Include village clearances for late 18th century park development. Covered under Post-Med period?

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, POST MEDIEVAL, DESERTED SETTLEMENT, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, PARK, Landscape Park, Landscape

Ind20: How can we measure the boom in Victorian estate improvements?

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Landscape study, historic development and change of villages close to large country estates. Relocation and planning of new estate villages as part of new landscape design, and rebuilding/improvements to estate villages – important theme in Cheshire in 19th century. Examine how estates reflect their wealth and identity through the use of distinctive architectural styles. Did the boom in Victorian estate improvements impact on the local building industry eg. brick and tile works, cast-iron, timber yards etc?

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, COUNTRY ESTATE, VILLAGE, BUILDING, VICTORIAN, ARCHITECTURE, BRICK AND TILEMAKING SITE, Cast Iron, Timber Yard, Landscape

Urban Landscape

Ind21: How did industrial period towns affect the pre-existing historic landscape?

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Undertake an overview of the impact on the historic landscape of the new towns of the Industrial Revolution and the new monument types developed within them. Examine how industrialisation drove urban growth and new towns.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MONUMENT, INDUSTRIAL, TOWNSHIP, TOWN, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, Urban Settlement, typology, Landscape

Ind22: How can we take forward our understanding of the impact of industrialisation on the working class and their living conditions?

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Need to excavate urban cellars to examine life ‘below stairs’ in the middle class house and cellar dwellings and workshops in working class houses (7.3:7.24) Where threatened with possible redevelopment excavations are required of now undeveloped and cleared former working class areas regarded as slums. (7.3.7.25) A great deal of targeted excavation has taken place over the last 11 years in Greater Manchester historic industrial centres, especially Manchester and Salford. This has been targeted on back-to-back and blind-back housing, especially cellar ‘dwellings’ made infamous by mid-19th century social commentators. It is now time to review this large corpus of data and determine the key results and future research directions. Combined series of research eg. PhDs/MAs. More training and opportunities needed to enable volunteers to engage with this type of excavation. Possibly incorporate more community engagement in these projects through planning.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, Back To Back Terrace, Workshop, Cellar, Cellar Dwelling, Blind Back House, Back To Back House, Urban Settlement, society, Higher Education research, Training, Synthesis, Community project

Ind23: What evidence do we have for the improvement of urban public health during this period?

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For example sewerage, drainage, drinking water, toilets etc. Historic research (social commentators, press, local acts, infrastructure projects, town planning, buildings such as public baths and wash houses), excavations of urban dwellings, urban building surveys of urban buildings, sewers etc.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, Sewer, Wash House, Drainage System, Drain, Toilet, Health, Urban Settlement

Ind24: When and where did landless urban development replace burgage plots of the Medieval and Post-Medieval towns?

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Study of this transition through targeting of medieval urban cores: review of Extensive Urban Surveys, Historic Landscape Characterisation, historic mapping analysis, excavation evidence. How do we pick up items of interest in buildings not listed or locally listed? Link with local building study groups. Make sure data goes to HERs.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, MEDIEVAL, POST MEDIEVAL, BUILDING, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, Survey, Burgage Plot, Urban Settlement, Urban communities

9.1.4: What impact have co-operative movements and paternalism had on the social, economic and physical development of settlements?

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Status:
Active
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework

Ind25: How do institutional buildings (e.g. prisons, asylums, workhouses, hospitals etc) develop during this period and where are significant extant examples?

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Targeted historic building surveys through planning system and research projects, review published literature and plethora of grey literature reports on historic building surveys, documentary research. Include gaps in coverage by the likes of RCHME surveys – perhaps VAG surveys and LHSS. Links with Q38

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, Survey, Documentary Research, Hospital, Prison, Institute, Workhouse, Synthesis

Ind26: How can we take forward our understanding of the impact of industrialisation on the middle class, particularly their housing and its location?

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Take a holistic approach, taking account of architectural history.Target urban and suburban areas of towns/cities where rapid industrialisation and growth took place. Use Historic Landscape Characterisation, historic mapping, review desk based assessments and urban survey data, examine relationship of early transport development with growth of suburbia. Aim to identify significant examples of eg. suburban villa development (well-understood in eg Victoria Park, Manchester but less well in other towns and cities

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, SETTLEMENT, TRANSPORT, VILLA, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, ARCHITECTURE, HISTORIC AREA ASSESSMENT, Documentary Research, Urban Settlement, society

Ind27: What impact have co-operative movements and paternalism had on the social, economic and physical development of settlements?

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Look at industrial/entrepreneurial housing. Examine how well social settlements are understood and surveyed. Look at methodology of well-studied examples such as Port Sunlight and apply to others.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, SETTLEMENT, WORKERS TEMPORARY SETTLEMENT, society, Economy, Settlement pattern

Ind28: How have settlements expanded beyond their historic cores in the 20th century (eg. suburban growth, peripheral housing estates and industrial parks)?

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Assess urban building types of the first half of the 20th century relating for example to suburbs and housing estates.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, SETTLEMENT, Historic Urban Core

Ind29: How can we establish a typology of modern buildings, particularly of the twentieth century, and how does this vary within the region?

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Assess urban building types of the 20th century. Historic England ‘Aspects of suburban landscapes 1850-2015’ (by Hanson & Partington, 2015). Use Historic Landscape Characterisation for urban areas. Architectural history is an important source for the 20th century. Break down in to new buildings types and specialisms such as industry, commerce, municipal, technology, health, education, housing. Important to focus on the gaps. Key issue is to understand significance before 20th century buildings are obsolete and lost.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, HOUSE, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, ARCHITECTURE, Education, Health, Urban Settlement, typology, society, Landscape

Ind30: How have buildings changed in response to planning regulations?

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Review building regulations against published/unpublished HE Use Level 3 or 4 surveys where detailed recording is able to demonstrate impact. Include residential such as cellar dwellings (multiple occupation of single family dwellings and role of renters).

Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, INDUSTRIAL, SETTLEMENT, BUILDING, Documentary Research, Cellar Dwelling, Synthesis

Ind31: How have mass housing developments and civic or public buildings such as prisons, schools, and workhouses, influenced settlement growth?

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Townscape studies, Historic Landscape Characterisation, Conservation Area studies, Extensive Urban Surveys. Where are significant examples?

Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, TOWNSHIP, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, Survey, School, Prison, Workhouse, Urban Settlement, Population growth, Conservation

Ind32: To what extent did houses and shops incorporate workshops and warehousing?

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Synthesis and review published and unpublished surveys. Identify significant examples.

Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, HOUSE, Survey, Documentary Research, Workshop, Shop, Warehouse, Warehousing, Synthesis, Settlement pattern

Ind33: How well studied and understood are the back yards of workers housing and what is their significance?

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Workers housing beyond terraces, infilled yards. Search published material including excavations. Include courts, study whole land plot. Include workshops behind the Chester Rows. Links with Q39

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, Documentary Research, Workers Cottage, Back To Back Terrace, Backyard, Courtyard House, Settlement pattern

Ind34: What do we understand about the diversity, architecture and design of buildings associated with social welfare?

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Odd fellows and social welfare, YMCA buildings and design. Include social punishment? Also reformatory schools. Historic England publication ‘Buildings of the Labour Movement’, 2013, provides a useful guide.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, HOUSE, ARCHITECTURE, Documentary Research, School, Punishment Place, Welfare Centre, society, Diversity

Ind35: What was the extent and character of houses built out of slave money?

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Firstly, we need a clear definition of what constitutes ‘slave money’ as this is too vague. Slavery houses built on proceeds, include Lancaster and Liverpool. Include both merchants’ country and urban houses. What about the spread of Atlantic slave trade outside Liverpool eg. evidence in Whitehaven? Impact of slavery on built environment. Lune Valley houses. Quaker Bankers. Identify significant extant examples.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, COUNTRY ESTATE, HOUSE, ESTATE BUILDING, COUNTRY HOUSE, Environment, Economy, Trade, Settlement pattern

Ind36: What impact did social and private housing estates have on the landscape?

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20th century suburbs and planning. Include Prefabs. Include Garden City estates. Utilise existing surveys such as the Greater Manchester Urban Historic Landscape Characterisation study. Identify significant examples.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, Prefabricated House, Garden, Urban Settlement, society, Synthesis, Settlement pattern

Ind37: What do we understand about the historic development and character of retail outlets?

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Former corner shops to department stores to malls. New subject on shopping trolleys (national typology?), retail structures, retail and transport infrastructure, local/out of town centres, affects of shopping on urban and suburban town planning. See Historic England publication on Shopping Parades by Kathryn Morrison 2016.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, TRANSPORT, TOWN, Shopping Centre, Department Store, Shop, Urban Settlement, typology, Economy

Ind38: How does the historic development and design of prisons in the North-West fit with national studies?

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Synthesis of published and unpublished surveys in the region and compare to nationally published studies. Look at decommissioning as well, and re-use/demolition. Nationally significant prison architects where involved in the NW (eg. Thomas Harrison, William Blackburn, etc). Harrison is already well-researched. See Historic England publication on English Prisons by Davies, Brodie and Croom, 2002. Link with Q25

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, ARCHITECTURE, Survey, Documentary Research, Prison, Synthesis

Ind39: What do we know about pre By Law workers housing and where are significant examples?

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Study good examples in Lancashire and Kendal. Links with Q33

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, HOUSE, Workhouse, Synthesis, Settlement pattern

Ind40: How well do we understand the historic development of urban transport infrastructure?

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Survey of streets/roads/highways.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, ROAD, TRANSPORT, Urban communities

Ind41: Where are the best-preserved examples of industrial townscapes and how well protected is their significance?

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Townscapes are not just built structures but include natural elements eg. tree-lined streets in 19th century suburbs. Are these valued and protected? Use historic landscape characterisation data to look at concordance between Conservation Areas and well-preserved industrial landscapes, also surveys such as those for textile mills. Both of these have been briefly examined in Greater Manchester but much more could be done.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, TOWNSHIP, TOWN, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, TEXTILE MILL, Suburb, Industry, Landscape

Ind42: How well understood and protected are architecture designed urban landscapes?

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A good example is Birkdale. How many are covered/protected by Conservation Area designation? Identify significant examples.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, ARCHITECTURE, Urban Settlement, Landscape, Urban communities, Conservation, Settlement pattern

Ritual, Religion and Ceremony

9.3.2: What is the range and nature of religious buildings, how do these vary between religious faiths, and how have buildings been adapted for use by different religious groups?

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Status:
Active
Date of next review:

9.3.4: What may be deduced from cemetery studies about changing attitudes to burial and remembrance and evolving funerary architecture?

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Status:
Active
Date of next review:

Ind43: What is the impact of changing populations within industrialised communities on existing and new religious buildings, and the denominational influence on the character of settlements?

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Study the relationships between chapels and industrialised communities and the possible denominational influence on the character of settlements. (7.4:7.28)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Categories:
RELIGION OR RITUAL, INDUSTRIAL, WORKERS TEMPORARY SETTLEMENT, Chapel, Religion, Population growth, Settlement pattern

Ind44: What do burial practices, including monuments and skeletal assemblages, say about the social context and impact of industrialisation?

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Record and analyse burial memorials and establish a regional database.(7.4:7.30) Recover and analyse 18th and 19th century skeletal assemblages where they are to be disturbed through burial ground redevelopment (7.4:7.31) Links with Q1

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Categories:
MONUMENT, INDUSTRIAL, BURIAL, HUMAN REMAINS, CEMETERY, society, Synthesis

Ind45: What may be deduced from cemetery studies about changing attitudes to burial and remembrance and evolving funerary architecture?

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Access to faculty records. Funerary memorials in churches and burial grounds. Investigate the development and form of graveyards and funerary architecture. Graveyards and churchyard extensions. Crematoriums and mortuary chapels. Cemetery / chapel types, land use and design. Burial grounds of England project by Church of England (digital surveys and use of volunteers)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BURIAL, HUMAN REMAINS, CEMETERY, CHURCH, FUNERARY BUILDING, ARCHITECTURE, Graveyard Survey, Crematorium, Chapel, Religion

Ind46: How can we expand our understanding of cemetery design and evolution?

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Review published literature/surveys. Synthesis. Identify significant examples.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, CEMETERY, FUNERARY BUILDING, Documentary Research, Synthesis

Ind47: How can a typology of church-related and non-Anglican buildings be devised?

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Synagogues, Mosques, Hindu temples – development and architecture. See Historic England publications eg ‘The British Mosque’ by Shahed Saleem 2018, ‘Jewish Heritage in Britain and Ireland’ by Sharman Kadish 2015, ‘Building Bhuddism’ 2016. Use studies of Non-Conformist places of worship as a model. Non-Christian places of worship – deserves separate question?

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, HINDU TEMPLE, CHURCH, SYNAGOGUE, MOSQUE, FUNERARY BUILDING, ARCHITECTURE, Religion, typology

Ind48: What is the range and nature of religious buildings, how do these vary between religious faiths, and how have buildings been adapted for use by different religious groups?

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Re-use/ Re-ordering places of worship from one faith to another. Investigate the development of religious and social buildings. Various denominations of Christian buildings.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, CHURCH, RELIGIOUS HOUSE, PLACE OF WORSHIP, Religion

Ind49: How well recorded are Roman Catholic churches and other Roman Catholic buildings?

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Roman Catholic churches are being lost due to diocese decisions, identify and record – but see national survey of RC churches per Dioceses, a well-researched area (AHP). Focus on less well understood RC buildings eg. seminaries, convents and bishops housing, and identify significant examples. Links with Q50.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, CHURCH, Survey, Roman Catholic Church, Bishops Palace, Religion

Ind50: How well recorded and understood are nonconformist rural burial grounds?

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Include particularly Quaker rural burial grounds. Where are significant examples?

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BURIAL, CEMETERY, Religion

Technology and Production

Ind52: What Industrial and Modern period type sites need further study?

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Industry specific studies are needed for those industries that have received little archaeological attention. This is especially needed for those industries that grew in importance in the early 20th century such as chemicals, automobile and early aircraft engineering. Equally more research is needed into the smaller but highly significant 19th and 20th century workshop based industries such as nail and bolt making and the regionally significant tool making industry of south-west Lancashire (7.5:7.35) Automobile Industry including possibly unique survival at Vulcan Motor Works, Crossen, Southport.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, TRANSPORT, AIRCRAFT, SITE, NAIL, Motor Vehicle, Tool Making Equipment, Workshop, Nail Factory, Engineering Works, Chemical Industry Site, Bolt Works, Industry

Ind53: What can archaeology tell us about the production and use of consumer products and their typologies from the late 18th to early 20th centuries?

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Regional study of late 18th to early 20th century pottery production sites should identify urban factories and rural workshops, to tie products to source with identifiable typologies and to examine differences in technology, organisation and marketing between the large factories and smaller rural potteries. (7.5:7.37) There is a need to source the products of brick and tile kilns and to establish typologies. Early brickfields seldom survive but the below-ground investigation of such sites, as well as surveys of later extant brickworks, should be a priority to understand the technological development of the industry within the region. (7.5:7.38) Window glass: technological and regional chronology of crown, cylindrical and flat glass. Development of factory line system eg. Hoffman kilns versus pot kilns. Old Monuments Protection Programme work needs review and revision. Metal detector surveys in Cheshire provide highly detailed, well-located assemblages of metal artefacts with useful evidence for socio-economic change through 18th to 19th centuries rural communities.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, METAL, POTTERY, POTTERY KILN, POTTERY MANUFACTURING SITE, POTTERY WORKS, BRICK AND TILEMAKING SITE, BRICK KILN, GLASS, BRICK, Metal Detecting Survey, Window Glass, Brickfield, Tile Kiln, Factory, Workshop, Tile Works, Rural Settlement, typology, technology, Production, Artefact studies

Ind54: How can the methodologies of textile mill surveys be applied to other monument types?

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A survey of textile mill sites in Cumbria is necessary to complement those for Cheshire, Greater Manchester and Lancashire. It should include an examination of their location in relation to the pre-industrial distribution of medieval and post-medieval water mills, and the impact of Industrial Age transport systems. (7.5:7.39) Survey work should be published in some form for Lancashire (preferably a book). NB. mills survey recently published by Historic England. Synthesis of more poorly understood major industrial production monument types such as engineering, hatting, textile finishing etc. Need county surveys similar to the mills studies to understand significance, rarity and vulnerability? Links with Q64.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MONUMENT, INDUSTRIAL, MEDIEVAL, POST MEDIEVAL, TRANSPORT, MILL, TEXTILE MILL, Survey, Hat Factory, Watermill, Hatters Workshop, Engineering Works, Textile Finishing Site, Industry, publication, Synthesis, Production

Ind55: What is the evidence for the development of power production?

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Use Historic England guides, building surveys, landscape surveys. Links with Q64 and Q65. Building surveys of power producing works should be undertaken to develop our understanding of power production and its evolution. Re-evaluation of recorded house sites, mills and public buildings can be used to track changes in power consumption through this time period. Links with Q61

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, INDUSTRIAL, MILL, HOUSE, Public Building, Power Generation Site, Industry, Landscape, Production

Ind56: How can we improve our understanding of 20th century factory organisation?

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Surveys of 20th century industrial plants before they close, using techniques like activity mapping to understand the interaction of process and employee. (7.5:7.40) De-industrialisation and commercial (plus non-commercial re-use.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL, Factory, Industry, technology

Ind57: In what ways can we identify domestic buildings adapted for the textile industry?

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Establish a typology of regional building traditions. Research the development of industry and its impact upon landscape and settlement morphology.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, SETTLEMENT, BUILDING, TEXTILE INDUSTRY SITE, Textile Warehouse, Industry, typology, Landscape

Ind58: How have industrial buildings adapted to new technology and processes?

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Engineering works for example Platt Brothers at Hartford Works. Oldham.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, Engineering Works, Industry, technology

Ind59: What is the evidence for academic research and innovation in technology and production?

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Academic buildings and innovation buildings. Academic research. University Theses. Archived Planning records. Include Mechanics Institutes and Public Schools.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, Public School, Mechanics Institute, Academy School, Documentary Archive Research, Higher Education research, technology, Production

Ind60: How can we make sense of the relative significance of historic industrial processes and building types perceived as poorly understood and recorded?

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Synthesis of published and unpublished work. Identify gaps. Undertake county/regional surveys based on textile mills survey model. Look at: Chemical works, Foundries, Breweries, Textile Finishing Works (dyeing, printing, bleaching), Hatting, Paper Making. Links to Q58 and Q59.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, INDUSTRIAL SITE, MILL, BUILDING, TEXTILE MILL, Survey, Paper Mill, Hat Factory, Foundry, Bleach Works, Hatters Workshop, Chemical Works, Brewery, Printing Works, Textile Finishing Site, Dye Works, Industry, Synthesis

Ind61: What are the gaps in our understanding of power production sites in the North-West?

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Examine nuclear power, coal and oil fired power stations, other types including urban. Use Historic England guide. NEW STRATEGY All redundant non-designated gas holders are currently being demolished. They are being recorded as part of this national programme. Include 20th century renewables including solar and wind power. Q55.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, Nuclear Power Station, Power Generation Site, Wind Power, Industry, Economy, Climate change, Production

Ind62: What are the key themes relating to the technology of construction and how can we record them?

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Themes include: concrete, steel framing, fire proofing, cavity walling. Link between fabric and built heritage types: timber framing to concrete and steel.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, TIMBER, TIMBER FRAMED BUILDING, ARCHITECTURE, Building Fabric Analysis, Concrete, Steel, Building Component, Industry, technology

Ind63: What are the gaps in our understanding of regional windmill typology?

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Review published surveys. Establish regional typology and identify the best examples, significance, rarity etc.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, Survey, Power Generation Site, Windmill, Industry, typology, technology, Synthesis

Ind64: How well studied are 19th century water turbines?

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Use factory catalogues, excavated examples, survey surviving turbines.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, Survey, Documentary Research, Turbine, Factory, Water Turbine, Industry

Trade, Exchange and Interaction

Ind65: What was the impact of globalisation on material culture and trading networks?

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Examination, mapping and evaluation of the occurrence of vernacular materials and objects in 19th century contexts. (7.6:7.42)

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, Building Fabric Analysis, Material, Building Component, Trade

Ind66: How well studied and understood are small-scale coastal trade sites?

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Map and record through Historic Landscape Characterisation, coastal surveys etc. Identify extent of coverage and undertake surveys and historic research on poorly understood examples.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, Survey, Coastal And Intertidal, Trade

Ind67: To what extent are trade routes and their context understood?

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Map known and potential trade routes, especially salt routes. Look at wider context: economy, landscape/settlement impact, industrialisation, etc.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, SETTLEMENT, Salt Production, Industry, Landscape, Economy, Trade

Ind68: What can archaeological studies tell us about commodity storage and exchange buildings?

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Build upon the archaeological investigation of warehousing and market buildings undertaken thus far in the region to examine them in all towns and establish regional distribution patterns and typologies. (7.6:7.44) Include inland canals and river infrastructure. Link with Q94.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, TRANSPORT, TOWN, BUILDING, MARKET, MARKET PLACE, Canal, Warehouse, Warehousing, River, Storage And Handling, typology, Trade

Ind69: How do telecommunication systems and their infrastructure develop and change during this period?

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Historic building surveys, documentary research, review publications on the subject and previous unpublished studies. Town plans, company records, deposited plans and finds assemblages.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, INDUSTRIAL, TOWN, BUILDING, Documentary Research, Telecommunication, Collections research, Synthesis

Conflict and Campaigning

Ind70: What is the role of defensive installations during the 18th and early 19th centuries (pre-World War I)?

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Undertake a regional study of late 18th and 19th century coastal defences and local militia installations. (7.7:7.45) Link with Q74 and Q79.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
DEFENCE, INDUSTRIAL, COASTAL DEFENCE SITE, MILITARY BUILDING, Coastal Battery, Coastal Defences, Military, War

Ind71: What is the character and scope of military archaeology during the 20th century?

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Encourage the local recording of 20th century features not covered in detail in the national recording programmes but using the recording methodologies pioneered in those programmes. (7.7:7.46) Many aspects of WW1 training (‘practice trenches’) and Home Front logistics (eg. remount depots) have received some attention during the WW1 centenaries, but synthesis, further documentary research and plugging of lacunae is required. Include arms production sites – are there any left? Research the urban infrastructure of war. WWII related structures. Munitions/gun emplacements. Ammunition factories. More definition required.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, MILITARY BUILDING, Survey, Documentary Research, Ammunition, Arms, Gun Emplacement, Factory, Munitions Factory, Ammunition Depot, Remount Depot, Military, Synthesis, War

Ind72: What are our contentious histories and how do we explore the historic environment to understand these?

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Identify what these are e.g. slavery, trade unions etc. and propose appropriate research strategies

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, Trades Union Building, Environment, Trade

Ind73: What is the archaeology and architecture of protest and social campaigning in the NW, and how well recorded is it?

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Identify what these are e.g. place name evidence, statues, association with historic buildings etc. and propose appropriate recording and research strategies. Campaign buildings, police clubs, statues and memorials. Broaden out into the archaeology of dissent and reform.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, ARCHITECTURE, Statue, Police House, Funerary, society, Memory, Place name study

Ind74: How can we establish a typology of surviving post-1750 military remains?

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Research the urban infrastructure of war. Identify and record rural historic environment features. Link with Q70 and Q79.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, SECOND WORLD WAR, MILITARY BUILDING, Military, typology, Environment, Rural community, War

Ind75: How have former military sites been adapted for re-use?

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Survey to identify military sites that have been adapted for other purposes. Include former filling factories and ammunition stores

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, MILITARY BUILDING, Ammunition, Factory, Filling Factory, Ammunition Depot, Military, War

Ind76: What is our understanding of the location and character of former military bases, training grounds and camps?

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Review known sites and how well they are recorded/mapped,eg. Training grounds/camps survival (Worsley New Hall). Link with Q77.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, MILITARY BASE, SECOND WORLD WAR, MILITARY BUILDING, Survey, Training Area, Training Camp, Military, Training, War

Ind77: What impact did military bases, training grounds or camps have on local settlements?

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Historic landscape characterisation, landscape survey, social interaction oral evidence, structural remains etc. Adaption of areas to meet the military needs. Include housing for workers and protest communities. Link with Q76.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, MILITARY BASE, MILITARY CAMP, SECOND WORLD WAR, STRUCTURE, MILITARY BUILDING, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, WORKERS TEMPORARY SETTLEMENT, Survey, Workers Village, Workers Cottage, Training Camp, Military, Settlement pattern, War

Ind78: How complete is our knowledge of the location of air raid shelters and their typology?

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Review of published/unpublished surveys and descriptions, Defence of Britain database. Map locations, types and survival, identify rare examples. National Mapping Programme can help with this – usually visible on 1940s aerial photographs.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, INDUSTRIAL, SECOND WORLD WAR, MILITARY BUILDING, Survey, Documentary Research, Air Raid Shelter, Military, typology, War

Ind79: To what extent was the North-West coast defended during the Napoleonic era, and what survives of these defences?

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Napoleonic era coastal defences – character, rarity, understand significance. Link with Q70 and Q74.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, Coastal Defences, Military, War

Ind80: How well do we understand early 19th century barracks, their location and distribution?

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Historic map analysis and other historical resources to create database of known barrack sites and review their survival.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL

Ind81: How well understood is the evidence for regional responses to the Second World War?

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Review Defence of Britain study provides good national framework but need to consider regional responses ie..home guard, drill halls, POW camp and internment camps, defence lines including tank traps and their production. Hidden military stores (guns, munitions). Normally attributed to the Home Guard in case of invasion. Air raid shelters stored ammunition.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL

Ind82: What is the evidence for bomb damage and its impact?

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Used German military photographs, plans of bomb strikes in towns/cities, newspaper clippings, local history articles/publications, etc.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL

Ind83: What is the impact of industry relocation in the Second World War?

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Use map reviews. Include industrial site history reviews, oral evidence, government documentaries/archive.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, SECOND WORLD WAR

Leisure and Recreation

Ind84: How can we identify the development of public parks and the changing uses of green spaces within the urban environment within the industrial period?

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Establish local registers of landscape parks based on individual site appraisals. (7.8:7.32) Record and classify the municipal pleasure grounds and public parks of the region. (7.8:7.33) Identify historic allotment s and leisure gardens. Where are the significant examples?

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, URBAN SPACE, Landscape Park, Allotment, Public Park, Municipal Park, Green, Urban Settlement, Landscape, Environment, Leisure

Ind85: How do public social buildings evolve, develop and change during this period?

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Buildings such as theatres, cinemas, public baths, libraries etc. Identify significant examples. Use building surveys to record public buildings, region wide surveys to catalogue the loss of public buildings from this period. Re-evaluate of archives of building surveys and redevelopment to track changes to building function.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, INDUSTRIAL, Buildings Recording And Investigation, Documentary Research, Cinema, Bath House, Baths, Theatre, Public Building, Library, Documentary Archive Research, society

Ind86: How does tourism evolve and develop during this period?

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Evaluation of media archives to record tourist advertisements, use the historic Landscape Characterisation to track developments of tourist destinations in the region. Cartographic surveys to understand the impact of tourism on the regions landscape. Examine the impact of railways and tourism on towns, eg. Coniston, Keswick, Marple. Cycle touring a popular working class pursuit from early 20th century – is there any historic built environment evidence ? Lake District well understood, but tourism in Pennines and coasts perhaps less so?

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, TOWNSHIP, TRANSPORT, TOWN, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, Buildings Recording And Investigation, Railway, Cycle Lane, society, Culture, Landscape, Economy

Ind87: How did public and private sport, recreation and leisure spaces develop during this period?

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Building surveys of extant sports venues, landscape surveys of areas known for localised sport to identify any archaeological remains. Include re-use of de-industrialised urban spaces eg. for music, night clubs (Hacienda) etc. Climbing club huts in the Lakes at forefront of developments within mountaineering. Natural features can be key to this eg. Napes Needle for British Mountaineering. Well-researched in the Lake District for WHS but how well research are other areas? Analyse changes to racecourse locations and layouts including associated buildings eg. Castle Irwell, Salford (GMPR publication). Examine how gentry pursuits such as fox hunting, game shooting and horse-racing impacted upon rural landscapes and buildings?

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, INDUSTRIAL, URBAN SPACE, RACECOURSE, Survey, Sports And Games, Music, Sports Building, Nightclub, Sports Site, Climbing Wall, Race Course, Recreation, Horse Racing, Urban Settlement, Recreation And Leisure, Mountain, society, Culture, Landscape, Economy, Rural community

Ind88: How can the changing function of leisure buildings be captured?

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Survey and analysis of theatres and cinemas (many now converted to different functions), to establish their social setting, technological development, architectural affinities and cultural role. (7.3:7.26)

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, ARCHITECTURE, Survey, Cinema, Theatre, Recreation Centre, Recreation, Recreation And Leisure, society, technology, Culture, Leisure

Transport and Infrastructure

Ind89: How have the expanding public utilities impacted upon development, particularly in relation to waste management?

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Examine the early development of utilities. Sanitation including water and sewage.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, Waste, Sewer, Public Building, Sewage Works, Waste Disposal, Economy

Ind91: How were transport infrastructures improved and how was this related to the developing urban and market hierarchy during the industrial period?

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Research the development of industry and its impact upon landscape and settlement morphology.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, SETTLEMENT, TRANSPORT, MARKET, Landscape, Settlement pattern

Ind92: What impact did the regions early railway development have on the world?

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Early railway sector heritage, the NW’s place in global developments, Historic Environment review.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, TRANSPORT, HISTORIC AREA ASSESSMENT, Railway

Ind93: How well do we understand the evolution of rural versus urban bridge construction?

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Establish typologies and chronologies of bridges. Identify gaps in understanding.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BRIDGE, Urban Settlement, Industry, Rural Settlement, typology, Chronology

Ind94: How well studied are the origins and development of colliery tram systems and do we understand their significance?

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Collate published data, identify gaps, provide typology, overview and assess relative significance. See for instance the useful studies for Runpast Publishing on Manchester and Wigan coalfield railways.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, TRANSPORT, Documentary Research, Colliery, Colliery Railway, Tramway, Railway, typology, Documentary Archive Research, Synthesis

Ind95: Can we identify rare and important survivals of early car infrastructure?

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Survey of early petrol stations, motor transport including, garages, bus stations, and car showrooms. Include motor sports. Develop understanding of architectural response to the development of car infrastructure.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, ARCHITECTURE, Motor Vehicle, Bus, Car, Petrol Station, Garage, Car Factory, Bus Depot, Motor Transport Building, Bus Station, Industry, Motor Sports Track

Ind96: To what extent are important survivals of horse infrastructure well understood, recorded and protected?

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Identify extent and record/protect rare or especially significant examples, for instance coaching inns, stabling, bridleways, paddocks, racecourses etc. Commercial, urban stables near railway stations (eg. Liverpool Road, Manchester) Domestic stabling.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, TRANSPORT, COMMERCIAL, COACHING INN, COACHING INN STABLE, BRIDLEWAY, Documentary Research, Railway, Race Course, Horse Racing, Paddocks, Industry, Stables

Ind97: How well understood and recorded are the North-Wests piers and slipways?

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Carry out review and target vulnerable, poorly recorded piers and slipways for detailed survey.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, Survey, Pier, Slipway

Ind98: How well understood and recorded are the North-Wests canals, waterways and basins?

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Review published and unpublished literature on canals and waterways. Synthesise and identify gaps.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, TRANSPORT, Documentary Research, Basin, Canal Basin, Canal, Water Channel, Industry, Synthesis

Ind99: How well understood and recorded are Occupation Roads?

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Review published and unpublished literature on Occupation Roads. Synthesise and identify gaps

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, ROAD, TRANSPORT, Documentary Research, Synthesis

General

Ind100: How do we capture the process of industrialisation?

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This is a key question. Look at the Manchester methodology, Historic Landscape Characterisation, Activity analysis, Area Surveys

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, Survey, Industry

Ind101: How well studied are 20th century government buildings in terms of identifying significant examples and types?

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Research architectural studies, planning/building records, develop typology plus targeted survey. Could make a suitable PhD.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, ARCHITECTURE, Survey, Buildings Recording And Investigation, Architectural Survey, Government Office, typology, Higher Education research

Ind102: How can we demonstrate increasing diversity through the study of particular 20th century building types?

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Focus on buildings that illustrate increasing diversity, such as University buildings/campuses and examine 20th cent adaptions.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, University, University Campus, Diversity

Ind103: How can we assess the appropriateness of current listing criteria?

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In the light of recent county level textile mill surveys and loss rates, we need to re-visit listing criteria to see if they are still fit for purpose. Look at mills survival rates, high point of building type and subsequent loss, degradation of power features, survival of component parts, new information since previous surveys on architects, building methods, development of technology. Extend surveys to cover gaps eg. North-east Cheshire, Cumbria?

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, ARCHITECTURE, TEXTILE MILL, Survey, Building Component, technology

Ind104: What are the key buildings and styles associated with the evolution and growth of educational institutes?

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Review which types have been well researched and surveyed and where the gaps are, eg. good national study of schools but are they well represented/understood in the region? Look at universities, mechanical institutes, libraries etc. Include boarding schools.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, Survey, School, Education, University, Boarding School, Institute, Mechanics Institute, Library, Synthesis

Ind105: How can the study of building interiors inform our understanding of materials and their manufacture?

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Look at growth of stained glass and decorative metal working eg. George Wragge of Salford.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MANUFACTURE AND PROCESSING, INDUSTRIAL, METAL, BUILDING, METAL WORKING SITE, Material, Stained Glass (Window), Metal Works, Building Component, Manufacturing Industry

Ind106: To what extent have we identified and protected the most important examples of police and fire stations in the region?

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Review of listed and locally listed examples, historic map and Google Street view analysis, county surveys similar to the mills studies. Geographic location and development of local services.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, MILL, Survey, Documentary Research, Fire Station, Police Station, Economy

Ind107: How well studied are social buildings in terms of identifying significant examples and types?

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Social buildings, mission rooms, temperance houses and pubs. Asylums and infirmaries, work houses and poor houses. Synthesis of published/unpublished work and review gaps

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, Documentary Research, Public House, Mission Hall, Infirmary, Workhouse, Temperate House, Mission, society, Synthesis

Ind108: What are the key buildings and styles associated with the evolution and growth of financial institutions?

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Include banking halls, insurance, penny banks and building societies.

Status:
Date of next review:
09/01/2025
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, BUILDING, Bank (Financial), Commerce, society

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