Religion, ritual and ceremony

The focus of investigation and research on religious and ceremonial sites in the region continues to be the church or chapel building. However, large-scale urban redevelopment has begun to affect 18th and 19th century smaller graveyards associated with non-conformist churches and chapels. Whilst the First World War commemoration events has led to a renewed interest in war memorials and their conservation, and a growth in online access to the information they hold. Historic England ran a listing project funded through monies from the DCMS (HE 2015), which raised the number of listed memorials from 1,657 in 2014 to 2,645 in 2018. Several notable examples have been protected in the North West including the Darwen church war memorial now in Darwen cemetery (L), the Kerridge War Memorial New Bollington (Ch), and the Lathom War Memorial near Ormskirk (L). Elsewhere, the study of non-religious ceremonial or formal landscapes from this period has been limited. An example of conscientious objection from the First World War has been recently scheduled at Green Moor Farm in Cumbria. This was once a safe house used as refuge by Socialist Labour Party members from West Yorkshire and Lancashire campaigning against the war. A rocky outcrop above the farm, which may have acted as a vantage point to look out for the police, became a memorial to the group’s presence and struggle with inscriptions and initials scratched into the rock.

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