Overarching questions and strategies

Each time period is allocated its own set of research questions. Alongside this are a set of general research questions for the archaeology and historic environment of the North West which are not period-specific.

Key overview statements to address:

A number of overarching comments came out of the workshop discussions for the framework that should be taken into consideration:

  • We know about national issues in relation to best practice, such as archiving, backlogs, science techniques, and publication, but are there specific regional issues?
  • Can regional issues be approached through partnership working with local archaeology departments at universities, through MAs, PhDs etc?
  • How easily can key sites be published in county and also national journals, and are there other ways?
  • Major backlogs should be assessed to see if they are still relevant. We need to review and identify key ones and focus on these so that the problem is more manageable.
  • Funding is the key issue. Can we develop regional apprenticeships to target this? We need to be braver and ask!
  • There are lots of new general strategies coming out of the workshops and re-structuring of the research agenda, which are presented in this new, dedicated section.
  • The web base will help link these across period research and be part of the solution.
  • Synthesis is a key theme. Leverhulme/AHRC partnerships could support this sort of work/analysis.
  • We need better working between professional archaeologists and community groups, together with more training.
  • We need to study people. Focus on society, health and diet across all periods.
  • How can we facilitate coast-watch, observation, recording and response (HLF/Societies/Friends groups)?
  • It is down to curators and statutory authorities to set robust, site specific briefs and enforce/police their implementation – but issues of staff and funding cuts.
  • Build Bayesian models for and across sites in the region. Open these to all people. Use successful models from elsewhere e.g. Iron Age in North East.

Overarching Research Questions

Information, data, synthesis and publication

GS1: What measures can be undertaken to provide a synthesis and make available previously unpublished data?

More information on this question
More information:
There is need for full assessment of the current resource beyond the scope of the Research Framework process. This work should cover antiquarian work, museum archives, HERs, and the archives of university departments and archaeological units. (3.1:3.1) Too much information remains unpublished or presented in grey literature only with no usable synthesis, and a framework is needed to address this regionally or nationally. (3.1:3.2) Review effectiveness of OASIS and recent Rural Research project and identify gaps in data and methodologies to capture this. OASIS https://oasis.ac.uk/pages/wiki/Main GREY LIT REPORTS http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/greylit/query.cfm Can we use Roman Rural Research project as a model? http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/romangl/ Focus on synthesis of articles in period journals, for instance work at The problem with funding of backlog projects (especially the last 10-15 years) is that the original written scheme (if there was one) may not now be fit for purpose. If development funded (especially ecclesiastical and Diocesan), then clearly client may be very unwilling to fund appropriate reporting. Site archives/information collections need to come out into the open and not moulder in sheds and garages belonging to original excavator. Sites need to be written up/published. No new funding for excavation should be available unless previous work is published. Need continued support of archaeology websites, HERs and Museums, with links between them (common data schema and access within individual archives). Encourage brief publication in period journals, as well as OASIS and HERs. Ensure archives are accessioned to county record offices as soon as possible. Need to include relevant archives held outside the NW region. How do we collect material from local groups with a view to publishing as many are no academic minded? Middlewich is synthesised in JCAS.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
publication, Synthesis, North West

GS10: How can we make academic research using the PAS data more easily accessible?

More information on this question
More information:
A reassessment of old archives of Romano-British but also potentially Iron Age sites is required. In particular finds of metalwork need to be located and revisited for modern analysis. (2.6:2.70) Strategy: re-assess old archives and plotting metal detector finds Iron Age metalwork remains rare at a regional scale, and iron objects are believed to be uncommon, but there is no up-to-date corpus of Iron Age artefacts for the region. Existing archives require revisiting with a view to evaluating the known extent of Iron Age material culture. The publication of Meols and the finds on the PAS database will help considerably towards this study. (2.6:2.74)
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
Collections research, Higher Education research, Portable Antiquities Scheme, North West

GS11: What can archaeology tell us about the extraction of raw materials and their processing?

More information on this question
More information:
Re-evaluation of archives should be used to further our understanding of materials from extraction sites. Landscape surveys and topographical surveys should be used to aid the identification of previously undocumented extraction sites.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MINERAL EXTRACTION SITE, Survey, Mineral Product Site, Collections research

GS2: How can we facilitate the publication of major sites?

More information on this question
More information:
Prioritise significant sites for publication. (4.3:4.29), (4.4:4.40) The study and publication of archival material from Carlisle especially, but also other towns like Manchester, Lancaster and Kendal is required. (6.5:6.32) An audit and prioritised programme for post excavation of key sites is required to deal with a backlog of unpublished excavations (3.1:3.4) Prioritise the absolute dating of key assemblages, such as the animal bone from Castle Street, Carlisle. (4.5:4.48) Actively approach major period journals with regional synthesis papers. Encourage/facilitate open access publication. But need to look at how/where published (and supporting data) eg. online/print – split/book/monograph/transactions etc. The publication and dissemination of unpublished work from military and fort sites should be treated as a priority. Work on the Chester post excavation programme requires funding to progress with the analysis that is underway, in order to understand the structural history of the Roman fortress at Chester. (3.4:3.18) Other examples include Richmond’s excavation at Lancaster, plus Carlisle. Realistically, this will need funding support nationally, but do not fund the failed models of the past. Need to look at how other regional backlog sites are published eg. Norton/Bewsey.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
publication, Chester, North West, Carlisle, Lancaster, Manchester

GS3: How can we formulate public access to archives of data and materials?

More information on this question
More information:
More information than has been published may be available in archives of past excavations, in particular material from sites on the west Cumbrian coast, which needs to be brought into the public domain. (2.4:2.22) Access to Archives needs to be addressed. Use of new and developing techniques, such as high-quality digital cameras and scanners, should be employed, to enable cost-effective and high quality recording of artefacts and greater ease of dissemination. (3.5:3.32) Subject of MA at UCLAN? How do we make academic research sources available/known to community groups. How do we share site knowledge ahead of research? Specify public access protocols in HER audits, irrespective of LA support. OASIS should be mandatory for all, with training provided. As a minimum, all Romano-British sites excavated should have an entry in Britannia and this requirement should be stated within curators’ briefs. (3.1:3.3) Need to confirm with Editors that room can be made for this increase in reporting. Now that summaries can be produced online then a case can be made for concentrating on county journal summaries. Not all counties have appropriate journals.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
North West

GS4: How do we engage regional academics and those from outside the region?

More information on this question
More information:

Provide assemblages they can use to further their careers. Need forums to bring disparate elements of archaeological community together. Potential for collaboration scoping activity between Regional Heritage Centre and Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (CWAAS) – using existing informal networks to gather contact details in first instance. Can HERs be promoted more widely in the academic?

Links to GS8

 

Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
Higher Education research, North West

GS5: How can the quality and output of publications and reports on archaeological investigations be improved?

More information on this question
More information:
Training workshops on writing and publication skills are needed to increase output and quality, target local societies and early career researchers. Integration of the local with broader academic objectives. Less ring fencing of knowledge. Open information sharing between the different archaeology sectors. National issues needs regional solutions. Need national radiocarbon date online database. Rewley House has designed and is running courses about this. Need these harnessed regionally through CIFA/HE. More training needed for volunteers/societies/early career professionals in more scientific sampling, production waste topics etc to enable greater/better quality analysis. Being prepared to be more constructively critical in reviewing reports/publications. Make published material more relevant to what is required. We need to ensure that there are sufficient ceramic and other specialists to tackle future projects and existing backlogs. Where are the specialist trainees and mentors?
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
RADIOCARBON DATING, publication, Training, North West, Sampling strategy

GS6: How can we open and maintain a mutually agreed dialogue with Dioceses to allow the sharing and dissemination of data, particularly with reference to the medieval periods?

More information on this question
More information:

Co-operation with diocese and faculties needed for access to archives. Diocese to allow access to watching brief and other reports to help understand sites into the dissolution period. (and links to 4.30 Early Med)

Link with GS8

Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, North West

GS7: How can a synthesis of building survey and excavation archives inform re-interpretation and targeted new investigations for known defensive sites?

More information on this question
More information:
Search of existing building recording and excavation archives to produce site specific reports and interpretative compilation studies. (5.5:5.30) This is particularly relevant for the Late Medieval period.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, Synthesis, North West

GS8: How can we build on investigations being undertaken by Higher Education and others to understand our corpus of material better?

More information on this question
More information:

As the majority of lithic scatters are derived from coastal assemblages and erosion scars, and often contain material of mixed date, the identification and excavation of stratigraphically secure and scientifically datable material in association with lithic assemblages is imperative. (2.5:2.57) Publish with the titles/abstracts of work (research) using development control based material eg. Quaker Cemetery, North Shields, Proctor 2016. Continue publication and range of where work done/on-going etc. Database across periods versus themes of such existing lists.

Links to GS4

Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
publication, Higher Education research, North West

GS9: How can we synthesise disparate sources of data to disseminate and help our understanding of the validity of the information?

More information on this question
More information:
Would make a good research funded project – possible PhD.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Date accepted:
Date of next review:
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
Higher Education research, Synthesis, North West

Improving Artefact Analysis

GS12: How should specialists prioritise analysis of material culture?

More information on this question
More information:
Contexts with high potential for waterlogged assemblages provide the opportunity for high returns in terms of understanding the totality of material culture on sites that in this region generally produce low levels of more durable material. These should be a priority for investigation and proper resourcing of such projects (including conservation) should not be underestimated. (3.5:3.33)
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
North West, Sampling strategy

GS13: How can advances in science based dating help to establish a sequence of closely dated artifacts?

More information on this question
More information:

Routine radiocarbon dating should be in all briefs. Compare/contrast intra-regional ceramic types, such as for Cumbria and N.Lancs. Reference collections are needed and training needed on identification of LMED ceramics. (5.1:5.1), together with relevant scientific dating applications. This principle needs to be applied to a range of artefacts including metal work.

Links to GS15

Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
RADIOCARBON DATING, typology, North West

GS14: How can distribution plots of coins be used to provide a model for trade against which other distribution models can be compared?

More information on this question
More information:
An ongoing distribution plot of coins is required, in relation to date and value, in order to provide a model for trade against which other exchange distributions can be compared. (3.8:3.45) Strategy on synthesis of single and lost coin hoards, reference PAS work. Local Government archaeology advisers to review conclusions from recent report on Cheshire metal detecting. Can/should the model/programme of metal detecting in Cheshire on Romano-British sites be adapted regionally?
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
COIN, Synthesis, Trade, Portable Antiquities Scheme, North West

GS15: How can we link established site chronologies to more fragmentary artefact assemblages?

More information on this question
More information:

Attempt to link the fragmentary artefact sequences to some kind of chronologically robust framework.(4.1:4.6) This is particularly relevant for the Early Medieval period.

Links with GS13

Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
EARLY MEDIEVAL, ASSEMBLAGE, Chronology, North West

GS16: What can focused research tell us about borders and cultural Identity?

More information on this question
More information:
Undertake focused research on issues of border and cultural identity across borders ie. Wales and Scotland. This is particularly relevant for the Early Medieval period.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
Identity, Culture, North West

GS17: How can we improve the regional knowledge of ceramic vessel form and fabric type chronologies?

More information on this question
More information:
Improve the regional knowledge of ceramic vessel form and fabric type chronologies. (6.6:6.33) Analyse and publish thus far major unpublished assemblages of post-medieval artefacts. (6.6:6.34) Question taken from post-medieval theme but equally applicable for all other periods. Identify key backlog sites for publication. Train new generation of finds specialists.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POTTERY, publication, typology, Training, North West

Improving Methodological Approaches

GS18: For the Prehistory, Roman and Early Medieval periods how can we identify genuine settlement patterns versus false or skewed data?

More information on this question
More information:

Absence of known distributions should not be regarded as genuine gaps and should be addressed positively through site assessments and evaluations (see above General Introduction). Similarly, genuine absences of relevant material in field walking or other interventions should be recorded to contribute towards a fuller picture of overall land use in the period. (3.2:3.7) Use aerial photography, LIDAR mapping as methods for assessing if gaps exist.

 Links to GS32, GS33 and GS38 

Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
ROMAN, EARLY MEDIEVAL, PREHISTORIC, Settlement pattern, North West

GS19: How can we use modern scientific techniques to maximise information from burial sites?

More information on this question
More information:

Strategy for cremated remains, synthesis and analysis. Wherever identified, cremated remains should receive full and integrated analysis to investigate the range of practices and their distributions and associations. (3.6:3.36) Where statistically viable groups of burials are encountered full scientific analysis using all available techniques should be a high priority. (5.4: 5.28)

Links with GS43

Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BURIAL, CREMATION, Synthesis

GS20: How can we shed light on the homogeneity of populations?

More information on this question
More information:

DNA analysis should be deployed wherever feasible, for indications of whether individuals in groups of burials are related and to shed light on questions of homogeneity of populations. (3.6:3.38)

Link to GS43

Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BURIAL, Demography, North West

GS21: How can we expand our understanding of late Holocene peat sequences?

More information on this question
More information:

Date late Holocene peat sequences by radiocarbon assay, particularly in the south of the region, which currently lacks any well dated analysed sequences. (4.3:4.17) Dating and analysis of Holocene peat sequences. STRATEGY Sampling strategy: A programme of analysis should target late Holocene peat and silt deposits, with good dating control and using a variety of methods. There is a need to look not only for woodland clearance and the introduction or increase in pasture and arable, but also for surface wetness indicators relating to climate change and indicators of industrial emissions. (3.3:3.14)

Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
PEAT, Chronology, Climate change, Land use, North West, Sampling strategy

GS22: How can full sampling and dating strategies for industrial production residues and deposits increase our understanding of metal, glass and ceramic production?

More information on this question
More information:
Enact a full sampling and dating strategy for production residues and deposits on all urban and rural sites, to detect evidence of hammerscale, metalworking or glass production. (4.5:4.45) Metallurgy: Scientific analysis of materials and environmental sampling should be strategically applied to support site-specific research into industrial production. (3.7:3.42) Environmentally-informed designs for urban excavations of former industrial areas are needed to ensure that the full potential of palaeoenvironmental analysis is used to inform examinations of industrial processes. (6.5:6.30) Identify a backlog project and assess whether the archive/site merits work. Establish partners who want to be involved including key specialists.
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, Palaeoenvironmental Analysis, Industrial By Product, Chronology, North West, Sampling strategy

GS23: How can we ensure that appropriate and timely archaeological investigations are undertaken on church owned sites?

More information on this question
More information:
Archaeological curators need to formalise and agree appropriate protocols with the Diocesan authorities which will enable all intrusive work on and around these sites to be monitored archaeologically, and for evaluation or excavation to be carried out where appropriate. (4.4:4.30) Applicable to all periods, protocols are already in place, some collaboration with local ecclesiastic faculties is needed. There is a need for general clarity of research aims and potential to address archaeological strategy when undertaking faculty planning. Work on ecclesiastical and monastic sites often deals with only a few burials. Burial analysis post excavation work needs inclusion in the Written Scheme of Investigation. Signposting guidance on Church Council website about faculty rules. Work with DACs and Church Heritage Records (for Anglican); also Methodist archive and individual congregations. Non-conformist sites are more vulnerable as they are often no longer consecrated. They are also ripe for redevelopment and should be a priority for investigation. Archaeological curators need to formalise and agree appropriate protocols with the Diocesan authorities which will enable all intrusive work on and around these sites to be monitored archaeologically, and for evaluation or excavation to be carried out where appropriate. (4.4:4.30) Applicable to all periods, protocols are already in place, some collaboration with local ecclesiastic faculties is needed. There is a need for general clarity of research aims and potential to address archaeological strategy when undertaking faculty planning. Work on ecclesiastical and monastic sites often deals with only a few burials. Burial analysis post excavation work needs inclusion in the Written Scheme of Investigation. Signposting guidance on Church Council website about faculty rules. Work with DACs and Church Heritage Records (for Anglican); also Methodist archive and individual congregations. Non-conformist sites are more vulnerable as they are often no longer consecrated. They are also ripe for redevelopment and should be a priority for investigation.
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
RELIGIOUS RITUAL AND FUNERARY, North West

GS24: How do we ensure topographic, geology and geomorphology information is used appropriately to protect favoured locations for rural sites?

More information on this question
More information:
A strategy to include survey and use of LIDAR and aerial photography for further identification of sites.
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
LIDAR SURVEY, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, Rural Settlement, North West

GS25: How can we develop a methodology to identify sites showing evidence for battles or invasions?

More information on this question
More information:
Ensure all opportunities are taken to date material from both the defences and interiors of hillforts, and from potential burh sites in Cheshire. (4.6:4.56) This objective has been added to EM Q34
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
DEFENCE, North West

GS26: How can we improve the dendrochronological sequencing for the North-West, particularly for the medieval period?

More information on this question
More information:
Improve the dendrochronology sequence for the region, with more samples taken from standing buildings as well as excavated preserved wooden objects. (5.1:5.2) Expansion of dendrochronology. Establish a regional master sequence against which to compare samples.
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
DENDROCHRONOLOGY, North West

GS27: How can we improve evaluation techniques?

More information on this question
More information:
Improvement of methods for dealing with extensive linear developments such as pipelines and roads, with targeted evaluation based on wider landscape assessment.(2.2:2.11)Where feasible, allowing more time during evaluation exercises for stripped surfaces to weather so that archaeological features can be identified. (2.2:2.12) This is particularly relevant for the Prehistoric period.
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
EVALUATION, North West

GS28: How can a regional solution be found to fund a regional response team for metal detector finds?

More information on this question
More information:
The reduction in peat cutting and extraction has limited the opportunities for the regular discovery of prehistoric material generally. In future, the majority of copper alloy Bronze Age artefacts are likely to be found using metal detectors. The collation of this information will require the continued liaison between the metal detecting fraternity and the Portable Antiquities Scheme Finds Liaison Officers. In particular the potential for keyhole excavation should be borne in mind for hoards or where there is the possibility of determining the context of deposition. (2.5:2.67) Work with PAS to develop an emergency excavation team of volunteers who can go out and support excavation of hoards in each region when they come up. Some hoards will require a quick response. Need more links of metal detector groups to ‘normal’ archaeology groups. Use of local groups where appropriate and trained. Offer training to metal detector groups with continuing liaison but control night hawkers. Link metal detectorists being able to work on excavations to number of finds recorded annually on PAS. Develop a regional heritage crime app (by an independent body – not PAS).
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
METAL DETECTING USE, Training, Portable Antiquities Scheme, North West

GS29: How can we identify and investigate key transitional horizons?

More information on this question
More information:
Strategy to establish clear identification and dating of key horizons.
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
North West

GS30: How could the incorporation of detailed sampling strategies be brought into the planning stage of archaeological investigations?

More information on this question
More information:
The potential for the recovery of environmental material from excavations must be recognised at an early stage of project planning, and suitable sampling strategies must be employed from the outset. The shortage of information for the entire prehistoric period means that every avenue of analysis must be investigated. Bulk samples should be taken as routine. On sites with alkaline soils sediments should be given a high priority for the retrieval of faunal material and mollusca, including large scale coarse sieving of soils. Well-preserved and unabraided pottery sherds need to be routinely analysed for residues and lipids. (2.2:2.16) This should be routine for briefs. Look at applications of lipid analysis and other scientific techniques to enhance our understanding of the environment. Food residue analysis should be moved to life styles research topic.
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING, North West, Sampling strategy

GS31: How can successful archaeological field survey techniques be extended to areas of high potential that have not yet been examined?

More information on this question
More information:
The successful application of archaeological field survey programmes in limited areas of the uplands of the region should be extended more widely to other areas that have not yet been examined. This also needs to be directed towards areas of high potential, such as the fell-edge intakes and areas of high-grade agricultural land that are currently being ploughed. (2.1:2.2) Review previous survey research and identify local zones for further study.
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
FIELD SURVEY, North West

GS32: How can detailed analyses using aerial photography and Lidar change our understanding of the distribution of known sites and provide targets for detailed investigation?

More information on this question
More information:

Continued air survey must be exploited for further identification of prehistoric sites. The systematic analysis of existing aerial photos is also required. Many sites may already have been photographed, but as yet remain unknown within archaeological terms. Characterisation of the air photo record may also lead to significant alteration of the distribution of known sites and provide targets for geophysics and trial excavation of both settlement and monumental complexes. (2.1:2.6)

Links to GS18, 33 and 38

Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
LIDAR SURVEY, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, SETTLEMENT, North West

GS33: How can field survey be targeted to remove the bias in monument distribution?

More information on this question
More information:

Approximately 20% of the Lake District National Park has been covered by archaeological survey, and around 90% of known cairnfields have been recorded. Many other areas of upland with few known or previously recorded field monuments, have seen little or no attention, and need to be assessed. Outside those areas which have seen detailed survey, information remains confined to the few published sources available, largely the result of antiquarian descriptions. There are therefore significant problems with the coverage and compatibility of the different datasets generated by varied approaches to the upland record. Further surveys should be undertaken in order that fieldwork bias is not taken to represent the actual distribution of monuments at a topographic or regional scale. (2.5:2.31) Assess the further surveys undertaken since original research framework published to review and inform new targeting strategy. GIS/Lidar/mapping/modelling to facilitate targeted field survey.

Links to GS18, GS31, GS32

Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
FIELD SURVEY, Settlement pattern, North West

GS34: How can we measure the success of Conservation Area reviews and new designations?

More information on this question
More information:
Conservation area appraisals synthesis and enhancement. Monitor planning applications and outcomes.
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
CONSERVATION AREA APPRAILSAL, North West

GS35: How can oral history and archaeology be integrated?

More information on this question
More information:
Incorporate oral histories into site investigation archives as digital transcripts
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
Collections research, North West, oral history (discipline)

GS36: What can investigations of well-documented house sites tell us about variations in material culture across the social spectrum?

More information on this question
More information:
High priority must be the excavation of well-documented house sites and their environs with artefact recovery and plotting a priority within the excavation design. Subsequently, an intra-regional study of selected households should be undertaken based on documentary and excavated evidence. (6.6:6.35)
Status:
Active
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
HOUSE, Documentary Research, Artefact studies, North West

Land Use and Environment

GS37: How well recorded and understood are farming landscapes, field patterns, distributions of buildings and building types?

More information on this question
More information:
Review Historic Landscape Characterisation, estate and farm surveys, identify gaps in coverage. Bull pens, hen coops, pig sties, middens, 1920’s/30’s documentations of older buildings, synthesis of pre-construction surveys. Regional “expected” distribution of building types versus outliers eg. bank barns. Synthesis of farm landscapes in context.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
Synthesis, Agriculture, Settlement pattern, North West

GS38: How did land use and management change through time?

More information on this question
More information:

There is a pressing need to publish or make accessible those surveys and excavations that have not yet been placed in the public domain, including large projects such as the Lake District National Park Survey. Development-related work that exists only in client reports or in Historic Environment Record (HER) requires regular synthesis and summarising. (2.1:2.1) Note: Lake District National Park survey was published in 2012. What was the relationship between settlements on the uplands, midlands and low lands? Academic-based research is required. Strategy for linking low to up lands could be to establish a rapid response team on newly ploughed ‘permanent’ pasture before vegetation re-growth.

Links with GS18 and GS 32 

Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
Higher Education research, Synthesis, Land use, North West

GS39: How did people exploit coastal and marine resources and did this change through time?

More information on this question
More information:
It is clear that more archaeological survey of both underwater and in inter-tidal zones is necessary in order to extend knowledge of the settlement pattern of much of the prehistoric period (English Heritage 2003d, 2.1 and 2.2). An assessment of the intertidal resource and identification of the areas most at risk from erosion would be an appropriate start to such a study. In appropriate circumstances, and particularly where prehistoric settlement remains are well preserved, this should be accompanied by targeted excavation. Even basic distributions of preserved timbers, faunal remains and flint artefacts would help to determine the real extent of settlement for some periods. (2.1:2.7) Whilst the previous Research Framework questions are focused on the prehistoric period, these are also applicable to other periods.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
SUBMERGED LANDSCAPE, Coastal And Intertidal, Settlement pattern, North West

GS40: What evidence is there for the impact of industrialisation on health, diet and natural resources?

More information on this question
More information:

Excavations should recover palaeoenvironmental data from cess pits and other suitable cut features to inform on diet, health, natural resource use and consumption patterns. (7.1:7.9) Opportunities need to be taken for the use of palaeoenvironmental and geochemical analyses of the historic environmental impacts of specific industries and industrialisation in general. (7.1:7.10) Links to evidence from burials/skeletons.

Links with GS43

Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, GEOCHEMICAL SURVEY, Palaeoenvironmental Analysis, Health, Diet, North West

Religion and Funerary Practice

GS41: How did people express religious beliefs (via site types, portable material cultures and funerary practices)?

More information on this question
More information:
There is scarcely any knowledge of religious sites in this period, apart from that evidenced by inference from inscriptions and sculpture/ figurines, and the opportunity to investigate any such sites particularly in a rural context should be a priority. (3.6:3.34) Kept as a specific question for the Romano-British period but this question applies to all other periods as well. How is ritual defined and what are the terms of reference? Apply existing criteria (eg. JD Hill, AM Chadwick). GIS/Viewshed analysis can reveal ‘settings’/landscape positions of potential significance to past populations. Look at wider approach, join up with buildings analysis, graffiti surveys, documentary research. Improve accessibility to grey literature, reports etc. to identify patterns across sites. Can ritual be identified in everyday contexts?
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
ASSEMBLAGE, RELIGIOUS RITUAL AND FUNERARY, Rural Settlement, North West

GS42: What is the evidence of ritualistic activity human burial practice in cave sites?

More information on this question
More information:
Need to engage with cavers, potholers, CBA groups and undertake outreach to caving clubs (through their web forums) to ask them what they know and what we are looking for archaeologically. Look at CAPRA website (Cave Archaeology and Palaeontology Research Archive). Unlock research potential of archives. Identify specific archives with potential that need research. Train community groups. Can we look at work done in Yorkshire Dales to help us do this? Disarticulated human bone (even in potentially residual contexts) and unaccompanied burials require routine radiocarbon dating. The material from cave excavations also requires dating as a priority. This question is particularly relevant to the Prehistoric period.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BURIAL, CAVE, Training, Community project

GS43: How can we characterise funerary practice?

More information on this question
More information:

Previously excavated skeletal and artefactual material (particularly pottery) needs to be re-examined, and, where appropriate, scientifically dated, to establish whether a phase in the development of burial practice in the region has, to date, largely escaped notice. (4.4:4.38)

Links to GS42, GS19 and GS20

Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
DATING TECHNIQUES, HUMAN REMAINS, ASSEMBLAGE, North West

Trade, Transport and Manufacturing

GS44: How can individual site based projects make a significant contribution to the region, in terms of defining trade centres or products?

More information on this question
More information:
Significant individual site based projects should be prioritised for research. Individual, site-based projects which may make a significant contribution in terms of defining trading centres or products should be a priority for research.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
Trade, North West

GS45: How can the study of excavated artefact assemblages inform our understanding of trade exchange?

More information on this question
More information:
Publication of the numerous excavated artefact assemblages recovered since the 1960s must be a regional priority, since they provide some of the raw data for analyses of production, trade and exchange. (3.8:3.44) Research is needed to draw together the potential evidence for this aspect of the Romano-British period and to formulate an integrated research agenda.
Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Committee
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
ASSEMBLAGE, publication, Synthesis, Trade, North West

GS46: How can archaeological investigations inform our understanding of the development of transport and infrastructure?

More information on this question
More information:

Excavation and scientific analysis of 18th and 19th century dock deposits. (7.6:7.43) Review previous archaeological surveys and excavations, published material and unpublished reports, HER data.  Mersey Docks and Harbour Board: plans held by Merseyside Maritime Archives are a huge resource – largely uncatalogued and selective, digitisation would be good.

Status:
Active
Authority to change status:
NW Research Framework Management
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
DOCK, Collections research, Documentary Archive Research, Merseyside, North West

Leave a Reply