Urban

During the early part of the post-medieval period, timber-framing continued to be an important form of construction, with good extant examples in Cheshire market towns, such as Nantwich, for example. New buildings in brick or stone are a theme in the later part of the period, but post-medieval buildings are rare in the region’s industrialised cities, such as Manchester and Liverpool due to later redevelopment; understanding these structures relies on the excavation of below-ground archaeology, such as recent work at Greengate in Salford. Wealth from maritime trade, including the Atlantic slave trade, generated new commercial and domestic buildings in the region’s ports for newly prosperous ship-owners, merchants and professionals from the first half of the eighteenth century. Andrew White’s research on Georgian Lancaster provides a social context for the town’s architecture, although Georgian urban architecture was more significant in the town after 1750 (White 2000). Towns less affected by redevelopment in later periods, such as Cockermouth (Leech and Gregory 2013), Kendal, Penrith and Appleby in Cumbria, generally retain more fabric from the pre-1750 period than the North West’s industrialised towns. In Appleby, buildings in the conservation area have been investigated in detail by Historic England as part of a Heritage Action Zone, with a separate report on the Moot Hall first built in the late 16th century (Barter and Elsworth, 2018).

The Moot Hall, Appleby: an example of well preserved pre-industrial period buildings, Cumbria

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