Late Medieval

Key overview statements to address for the Late Medieval period:

A number of overarching comments came out of workshop discussions for the framework that should be taken into consideration for the late medieval period:

  • Settlement at two levels. We are ready to ask questions on unusual settlement forms.
  • There is a lack of understanding of urban and rural poor and this should be targeted for research i.e. don’t just dig higher status sites.
  • Development of rural housing from Roman, early medieval through to post medieval – status can change through time.
  • Emphasis on problems. Need to look at effect of disaster on settlements, such as Harrying of the North.
  • Importance of documentary resources.
  • How do monasteries affect settlement patterns and vice versa?
  • Look at failed and successful towns – failed ones just as interesting.
  • Wider landscape including royal forests and deer parks need study.
  • Why do some elements of religious houses survive and not others?
  • Granges are the ‘Cinderella’ of studies. Should look at their impact on landscape and use.
  • Wider pool of expertise needed e.g. geology/geomorphology.
  • Identify quarries to help match up stone of future conservation.
  • Emphasis on defence but what about ‘pseudo’ defence linked to expressions of status.
  • There is no national corpus for mason’s marks (last attempted in 1954 by Davis), therefore there is little chance of identifying masons or teams e.g. there are 17 mason’s marks on Lancaster Castle gatehouse of 13th to 15th century date.

Late Medieval Research Questions

Chronologies

LM01: How can we improve the dendrochronological sequencing for the medieval period in the north-west?

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Improve the dendrochronology sequence for the region, with more samples taken from standing buildings as well as excavated preserved wooden objects. (5.1:5.2)Expansion of dendrochronology. Establish a regional master sequence against which to compare samples.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, DENDROCHRONOLOGY, typology, Chronology

Rural Settlement and Land use

LM02: What is our understanding of late medieval land reclamation, water management and exploitation of natural resources?

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Systematic coastal survey, including former coastal/intertidal areas now beyond the high water mark, and comparison with south-west Scotland and north Wales. Attention should be paid especially to evidence relating to fishing. (5.2:5.6) Maritime surveys of the intertidal zone, and the collation of finds from dredging and boreholes should be undertaken. (5.2:5.7) Climatic changes in the medieval period (plus human use of landscape/vegetation) should be studied through geoarchaeological analyses of hill slope, valley floor and river/lake/coastal sediments. (5.2:5.13) Link these to Documentary research to establish patterns of land use and change. Look at population growth leading to encroachment on common land.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, Survey, Documentary Research, Coastal And Intertidal, Land use

LM03: How did small settlements evolve and exploit environmental resources?

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Study how dispersed settlement evolved across a township/manor, related to other settlements and accessed the exploitable resources of their environs. A range of techniques, particularly palaeoenvironmental sampling of landscapes and selective excavation, should be encouraged. (5.2:5.8) Link to documentary research where such resources exist. Link to growth of nucleated settlements. Test hypothesis of chronology and village development by excavation. Medieval sites need to be understood in the context of their location within the township and in relation to the manorial facilities.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
SETTLEMENT, MEDIEVAL, EXCAVATION, Documentary Research, Palaeoenvironmental Analysis

LM04: How can place name evidence inform our understanding of the expansion of Medieval dispersed settlements?

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Examination of individual dispersed settlements, especially those with hey, ridding, stubbing, thwaite, or other names possibly associated with medieval settlement expansion. Excavation including programmes of scientific dating will be necessary in order to explore the possibility of settlement continuity from the early medieval period. (5.2:5.9) Archaeological investigation of developments on the edge of smaller and rural settlements and DMVs. Link to documentary research where such resources exist. Is there a discernible difference in settlement/boundary patterns between royal forests/game areas and other landscapes?

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
DATING TECHNIQUES, SETTLEMENT, MEDIEVAL, Place name study

LM05: How can we recreate the medieval land-use patterns within townships?

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Local studies based on Historic Landscape Characterisation data should be undertaken to attempt to recreate the medieval land-use pattern within townships. (5.5:5.10) Cheshire HLC clearly shows patterns of medieval assarts and wetland reclamation.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, Land use

LM06: How can the impact of landholding and lordship be identified by wider landscape studies?

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Carry out wider landscape studies based upon individual estates, to investigate the impact of particular forms of landholding and lordship. (5.2:5.4) Landscape-based surveys should be undertaken at various levels of historic land holdings and divisions such as the honour, manor and township, to test the underlying hypothesis of both county based HLCs and Roberts and Wrathmell’s (2002a) national analysis of settlement patterns. (5.2:5.11) Link to documentary research where such resources exist. Use detailed aerial photo or LIDAR work on selected deer parks to determine the typology of subdivision and further documentary research to explore prevalence of deer leaps.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, Documentary Research, Landscape, Settlement pattern

LM07: How we can use inter-regional and cross-border concepts to aid our understanding of the relationships between settlements in the medieval period?

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Focused research on issues of borders and cultural identity, including cross-border research initiatives with Wales and Scotland. (5.2:5.5) Studies of the relationships between rural settlement and landscape in the region and in southern Scotland, either by cross-border projects or by testing the applicability of Scottish research concepts within the region, and vice versa. (5.2:5.12) Cross border research initiative to understand cultural identity, medieval borders, particularly with Wales, Scotland, Ireland and the Isle of Man. Still very little cross-border collaboration in the north. Need to expand – does cross-border include the Isle of Man and Irish Sea?

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
SETTLEMENT, MEDIEVAL, Culture

LM08: How can the impact of plague, climate change and war be identified through the archaeological investigation of rural settlements?

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Application of scientific methodologies particularly to burial studies. Also identification of land/resettlement in upland areas in early part of late medieval period, then abandoned post Black Death and resettled as population expanded again. Settlement desertion – excavation linked to scientific dating.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, Rural Settlement, Demography, Disease, Climate change, War

LM09: How can the analysis of peat and documentary evidence enhance our knowledge of the Right of Turbury?

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Review relevant grey literature and historic research, and target palaeoenvironmental work.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, PEAT, Documentary Research, Palaeoenvironmental Analysis, Synthesis

LM10: How can a review of excavated and surveyed extant farm buildings and house types contribute to our understanding of the late medieval/early Post Medieval transition?

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Revise and enhance regional typologies. Undertake surveys of farm buildings and house types across the Medieval and Post Medieval transition. Is a synthesis required?
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, POST MEDIEVAL, FARM BUILDING, Survey, Farmhouse, typology, Synthesis

LM11: How can we improve our understanding of the origins and developments of building types from early med to late medieval?

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Establish better chronologies through excavation and survey that link standing and below ground building remains to chronologies established through artefact and dendrochronological analysis. Is a synthesis required?
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
EARLY MEDIEVAL, MEDIEVAL, EXCAVATION, BUILDING, Survey, typology, Chronology, Synthesis

LM12: How do we improve our knowledge of the regions various agricultural practices, plant and animal husbandry, and how did these change and develop over time?

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Ensure a full range of appropriate archaeological techniques are applied, such as palaeoenvironmental analysis, landscape survey, place name and documentary evidence. Continue to apply new techniques to old and new animal bone assemblages to establish the range of animals that were managed and their movement across the region  and country (isotope analysis). Looks at East Midlands research on land ownership changes post Norman Conquest eg. larger estates including the royal hunting forests

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS, Survey, Documentary Research, Palaeoenvironmental Analysis, Landscape, Agriculture

LM13: What can we learn about the origins and development of the use of managed woodlands across the region?

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Dendrochronology and palaeoenvironmental evidence along with evidence that for various industrial uses of woodland and woodland products need synthesis to begin to contextualise and understand the extent and importance of woodland management across the region. Surveys of ancient woodland looking for archaeological features is currently occurring in West Yorkshire: ‘Celebrating our Woodland Heritage Project’. Can this be rolled out in the North West?
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
Woodland, MEDIEVAL, DENDROCHRONOLOGY, Survey, Palaeoenvironmental Analysis, Synthesis

LM14: How can we improve our understanding of the form, evolution and functions of buildings within rural settlements and establish the extent of surviving medieval fabrics?

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Multiple uses of buildings and dual economy. Synthesis of work on barns. Investigate the morphology of rural settlements.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, MEDIEVAL, BARN, Building Fabric Analysis, Rural Settlement, Synthesis

LM15: How have recent detailed surveys of medieval halls informed our understanding of their evolution and transition to modern housing?

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There have been a number of large scale and detailed surveys of Medieval and Tudor halls in recent years. These should be synthesised to help understanding of the transition to modern housing.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, BARN, TUDOR, Buildings Investigation (England)

LM16: What insights can graffiti and protective markings provide on medieval and later societies and their beliefs? LINKS with Q27 and Q32

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Apotropaic markings in higher status timber framed buildings – protective marks and graffiti. Review effectiveness of recent surveys and roll out programme across North-West. Train and use local heritage groups as with the Greater Manchester model.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, GRAFFITI, TIMBER FRAMED BUILDING, Apotropaic Mark, Religion, Training, Community project

Urban Settlement

LM17: How can we identify the potential survival of Medieval urban fabric and stratigraphy?

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There is a need to examine the street frontages in medieval towns as well as the back plots. (5.3:5.14) Surveying to identify streets, cellars and back plots.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, Survey, Building Fabric Analysis

LM18: What more can we learn about the defence of Medieval towns and smaller settlements?

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More work is needed on town defences in the region, especially at Chester where the towers in particular need further investigation and study. (5.3:5.15) Undertake new surveys of town defences and revisit archives. Work in Chester is on-going and much has been done from the point of view of historians; need to ensure this work is linked with the archaeological studies to form an holistic approach. Include siege works. Link to Theme 5.5.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, SIEGEWORK, TOWN, TOWN DEFENCES, Survey, Collections research

LM20: How can we make sure urban archaeological databases are accessible and up to date for key medieval towns?

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Review coverage and condition of UADs, including Carlisle and Lancaster, and accessibility and updating of urban archaeological database. (5.3:5.17) Need to be made more accessible for front end users such as planners and able to update.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, TOWN

LM21: How can below-ground archaeological investigations shed light on the role and nature of small towns?

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The role and nature of small towns should be examined which should include below-ground investigations in well preserved small towns such as Hornby and Walton in north Lancashire. (5.3:5.18) Buildings on stone footprints as shown on tithe and earlier maps should be investigated for earlier fabrics. Consider failed towns and their differences with successful ones.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
07/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, EXCAVATION, TOWN, Building Fabric Analysis

LM22: What differences are there in the stratigraphy and material culture of urban settlements linked to industrial specialisations as opposed to smaller market towns?”

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There is a need to examine proto-urban and urban settlements linked to local industrial specialisation, such as Alston, to identify any differences in structure and material culture from the small market towns, as well as in their role as part of regional trading networks. (5.3:5.19)
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, EXCAVATION, TOWN, ASSEMBLAGE, Market Town, Industry

LM23: Should large planned villages be considered “Urban” and if not, what are the differences?

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Identify potential sites and develop a methodology. Potential issues with shallower deposits on small urban and rural sites.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, VILLAGE

Religion, Ritual and Ceremony

LM24: How can archaeological techniques be applied to enhance our understanding of the evolution and character of monasteries and lesser religious houses?

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Monastic outer courts, ancillary buildings and precinct boundaries should be investigated through topographical and aerial photographic analysis, geophysical survey and selective excavation incorporating palaeoenvironmental sampling. (5.4:5.21) Extensive and site specific studies of cells, hospitals and other minor sites of the monastic orders are required. (5.4:5.22) Opportunities should be taken to investigate through geophysical survey and excavation the sites of early and/or temporary monasteries. This would not only assist in the study of monasticism but may be of considerable significance for the study of 12th century building techniques and as the sites are historically dated would be beneficial in establishing artefact chronologies. (5.4:5.23) Investigation of the buildings of urban friaries needs to be a priority. (5.4:5.24) Study the origin and decline of hermitages. Link to documentary research where such resources exist. In addition to monastic outer courts, ancillary buildings and precinct boundaries, should estates (eg. gardens, farms and granges) be included?
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, MEDIEVAL, EXCAVATION, GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY, TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY, RELIGIOUS HOUSE, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION, Documentary Research, Monastery, Hermitage (Religious)

LM25: How can modern approaches to buildings analysis increase our understanding of the structural evolution of Medieval churches?

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Buildings analysis using modern approaches and techniques is required for churches to identify medieval fabric and to reveal their structural evolution. (5.4:5.25) Apply modern approaches and techniques to building surveys and compare with previous studies to establish new data. Link to documentary research where such resources exist.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, MEDIEVAL, CHURCH, Building Fabric Analysis, Documentary Research

LM26: How did the location of Medieval churches and other religious houses relate to and influence Medieval settlement patterns?

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Churches should be assessed in their landscape context as key components and nodal points in the medieval settlement pattern. (5.4:5.26) Look at what influenced the location of ecclesiastical sites.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, CHURCH, RELIGIOUS HOUSE, Landscape, Settlement pattern

LM27: What evidence is there for Medieval popular belief and spiritual customs? LINKS with Q16 and Q32

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A corpus of artefacts relating to medieval popular belief and spiritual customs should form the basis to a synthetic study. (5.4:5.27) Target timber and stone buildings and other features such as holy wells. Devise strategy on identification of apotropaic markings. Look closer at graffiti in Medieval churches, Expand the Greater Manchester graffiti survey model.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, GRAFFITI, TIMBER FRAMED BUILDING, Survey, Apotropaic Mark, typology, Synthesis

LM28: How can we identify regional trends in the development of church architecture, sculpture and other decorative schemes; and are there regional styles or are the relationships more nationally based?

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Ensure the full range of church architecture, monuments fixtures and fittings are recorded and subject to regional analysis. Collate and synthesise existing surveys and reports to inform regional studies.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, CHURCH, SCULPTURE, ARCHITECTURE, Survey, Synthesis

LM29: What was the impact of the Reformation upon ecclesiastical buildings and monastic estates?

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Study post-Dissolution re-use of monastic structures and continuity of monastic estates. Landscape surveys, historic research into estates, place name evidence, study of adapted buildings and re-used building materials. Link to documentary research where such resources exist.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY, RELIGIOUS HOUSE, Building Fabric Analysis, Documentary Research, Monastery, Place name study

LM30: How can we better understand the layout and function of grange estates?

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Invasive and non-invasive investigations: historic research, landscape survey, geophysics, aerial photography and LIDAR analysis, targeted excavation. Link to documentary research where such resources exist. Examine the disparity of use.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
LIDAR SURVEY, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, MEDIEVAL, EXCAVATION, TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY, ESTATE BUILDING, Monastery, Land use

LM31: How can we improve our knowledge of the health and composition of the general population over this period; do new population demographics arise from conquest, depletion, immigration and other movement, and is it possible to identify more mobile individuals in communities?

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Ensure that the limited resource of human burials of this period is subject to the full range of current archaeological and scientific techniques for studying all aspects such as health and place of origin. Include documentary evidence for population immigration and emigration (isotope and DNA analysis). Where possible apply new techniques to existing assemblages. Link to documentary evidence where this exists. Pay particular attention to the demographics of the coastal towns/cities.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BURIAL, MEDIEVAL, STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS, Documentary Research, Health, Collections research, Population growth, Migration

LM32: How common are apotropaic markings in timber and stone churches and what are their meanings?

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Adapt and develop successful models from within and outside the region to survey early churches in the North-West. Look for opportunities to engage the help of volunteers from local heritage groups and elsewhere. Train local volunteers to spread coverage of the survey and harness local knowledge and enthusiasm. Links to Q16 and Q27

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, CHURCH, GRAFFITI, Survey, Apotropaic Mark, Training, Community project

LM33: What does the development of church architecture tell us about the “authority” of the church?

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A study of the development of church architecture, “the architecture of authority.”
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, CHURCH, ARCHITECTURE

Defence, Warfare and Military Activity

LM34: How can modern survey and excavation techniques improve our understanding of the origins and architecture of castles and defended sites?

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Further use of IT applications such as computer modelling and view shed analysis to reinterpret and complement existing records for well known, as well as more obscure defensive sites. New remote survey techniques (drones) and 3 D modelling allow survey and exploration of structures that may be remote or dangerous to access. (5.5:5.29) Synthesis of the Castle Studies Group work at Lancaster castle and elsewhere in the region. Photogrammetic coverage of exterior of Lancaster Castle is incomplete and 3D modelling might give better ability to interpret. The Castle Studies Group work has re-ignited interest but gives a somewhat biased chronology which needs to be revised and tested. Undertake detailed interpretative fabric surveys of fortified houses, combined where appropriate with geophysical survey, selective excavation and dendrochronological analysis, integrating the below and above ground data within a well dated and contextualised framework. (5.5:5.33) Utilise a suite of modern techniques, dendrochronology, geoarchaeology, Lidar and GPR for fabric surveys. Link to documentary research where such resources exist. Include moated sites.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
CASTLE, BUILDING SURVEY, MEDIEVAL, EXCAVATION, DENDROCHRONOLOGY, REMOTE SENSING, Building Fabric Analysis, Documentary Research, Fortified House

LM35: How can selective excavation and geophysical surveys identify the presence of earth and timber antecedents of stone castle sites?

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Selective excavation and geophysical survey of some stone castle sites with potential for earlier earth and timber antecedents. (5.5:5.32)
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
CASTLE, MEDIEVAL, EXCAVATION, GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY

LM36: What more we can learn about the sites and locations of battles and invasion routes?

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Use documentary research combined with topographical analysis and gridded metal detector surveys to locate the Battle of Solway Moss more accurately. (5.5:5.34)
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, BATTLEFIELD, TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY, Documentary Research, Metal Detecting Survey

LM37: How can we measure the impact of Scottish and Welsh raiding on the medieval buildings and landscapes of the North-West?

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Undertake landscape and topographic surveys, environmental evidence, historic research, study defensive adaptation of vernacular buildings. Link to documentary research where such resources exist.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING, MEDIEVAL, BUILDING, TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY, Documentary Research, Defended Building, Landscape

LM38: How can archaeology demonstrate the effect of the Norman Harrying of the North on Medieval settlement and landscape?

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Use landscape and topographic surveys, environmental evidence, historic research. Use Domesday Survey where appropriate eg. Clitheroe and use Yorkshire evidence.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING, SETTLEMENT, MEDIEVAL, TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY, Documentary Research, Landscape

LM39: How extensive and effective were urban defences?

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Determine if defences were for actual use, and if the presence of defences were related to a settlement’s status or a reflection on it prosperity.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, TOWN DEFENCES

LM40: To what extent is the impact of the War of the Roses evident in the archaeological record?

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Use landscape and topographic surveys, PAS data, environmental evidence, burial evidence, historic research, study of defensive adaptation of structures.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING, BURIAL, MEDIEVAL, TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY, Documentary Research, Defended Building, War, Portable Antiquities Scheme

LM41: To what extent was the development of defensive or pseudo-defensive structures linked to cultural ideas of landscape and power, and are these reflected in the development of high status residences from the castle and defended house to the later stately home, country house and estate?

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Ideas of expressions of lordship and power and their relationship to the landscape are coming to the fore in history studies. The relationships to landscape and resource exploitation may be governed by cultural factors as much as by those of economy and practicality. Power centres need to be studied in their cultural setting.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, COUNTRY ESTATE, Manor, Defended Building, Landscape

Technology and Production

LM42: How can we contextualise Medieval industrial remains within estate-based surveys of monastic and secular based buildings and land holdings?

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Identification of likely medieval industrial remains contextualised within estate-based surveys of both monastic and secular holdings. PAS data. (5.6:5.35) Link to documentary research where such resources exist.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, MEDIEVAL, Documentary Research, Manor, Monastery, Portable Antiquities Scheme

LM43: What can recent investigations tell us about Medieval iron production and how can this inform future targeting of research?

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Investigation of bloomery sites in Furness and other major iron working areas using geophysical techniques. (5.5:5.36) Undertake a review of recent investigations, identification of sites/areas of research. Place name evidence, documentary evidence for iron and other metal sites. Excavate selective bloomeries, especially where evidence of water power usage, to discover their dates and technological development
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, Metal Production Furnace, Bloomery, Synthesis, Place name study

LM44: How can modern analysis techniques improve our understanding of Medieval non-ferrous extraction and production sites?

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Combined documentary and topographical surveys, and where appropriate palaeoenvironmental and geochemical analysis, to identify areas and relicts of medieval mining and non-ferrous metal working. (5.5:5.38) Place name evidence, documentary evidence for non-ferrous metal sites.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MINING INDUSTRY SITE, MEDIEVAL, GEOCHEMICAL SURVEY, TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY, Documentary Research, Palaeoenvironmental Analysis, Place name study

LM45: What can recent analysis of building materials tell us about building industry techniques and resource management?

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Routine analysis of datable building materials to gain information on both building industry technology and the nature of woodland industries and management. The timber-framed halls and churches in the south of the region may be particularly useful in this respect. (5.6:5.39)
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
Woodland, MEDIEVAL, ASSEMBLAGE, TIMBER FRAMED BUILDING

LM46: How can we best identify and date ceramic kiln sites?

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Identification and investigation of pottery kiln sites including the use of archaeomagnetic dating to identify sequences more closely and investigate the links between producers and consumers. (5.6:5.40) Research place name evidence. Review our understanding of the location of ceramic production centres.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, POTTERY KILN, Archaeomagnetic Sampling, Place name study

LM47: How can detailed archaeological investigation define the location and character of water powered mills, especially fulling mills?

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Detailed investigations of mill sites, especially fulling mills as precursors to the later industrial scale textile industry. (5.6:5.41)
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, TEXTILE MILL, Fulling Mill

LM48: What do we know about the nature and development of Medieval urban-based industries?

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Investigations of urban-based industries, using the full panoply of available scientific techniques to provide information on developing technologies and on the role of towns as centres of production. (5.6:5.42)
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, MEDIEVAL, TOWN

LM49: How can the analysis of place and street names inform our understanding of urban industries?

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Utilise Urban Archaeological Databases, Extensive Urban Surveys, Historical Landscape Characterisation, dedicated historic research.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, MEDIEVAL, TOWN, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, Place name study

LM50: How can archaeological studies further our knowledge of the development of ceramic building material production?

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Identification and investigation of tile and brick kiln sites including the use of archaeomagnetic dating to identify sequences more closely and investigate the links between producers and consumers. Research place name evidence.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, BRICK AND TILEMAKING SITE, BRICK KILN, Archaeomagnetism, Tile Kiln, Place name study

LM51: How can we improve knowledge of the extractive industries to include stone as well as minerals?

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The area is known for mining but the origins of this are obscured by latter extraction on an industrial scale. Ensure that the study of mining landscapes includes acknowledgement of possible origins. The study of stone extraction has been neglected with many small quarries across the region whose origins and period of use are unknown. Link these to buildings and their construction materials and origins. Can we link stone in settlement and industrial buildings to particular quarries?
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, MINERAL EXTRACTION SITE, Stone Extraction Site

Trade, Exchange and Interaction

LM52: How can we improve our understanding of Medieval ports and distribution networks?

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A study of medieval ports and their trade contacts via documentary research, sample excavation and the use of artefacts to study trade networks. (5.7:5.43) Documentary research and artefact and sample excavations needed. Maritime archaeology. Can we establish the existence of an “Irish Sea Zone”? Work with CITIZAN. Use PAS data to track trading networks through styles of object etc.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
PORT, MEDIEVAL, EXCAVATION, ASSEMBLAGE, MARITIME, Documentary Research, Trade, Portable Antiquities Scheme, Artefact studies

LM53: How can maritime archaeology identify and expand our knowledge of Medieval wreck sites?

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Maritime and coastal studies to identify medieval wreck sites and the opportunistic exploration of intertidal and waterlogged terrestrial remains of medieval ships. (5.7:5.44) A resource is needed for chance discoveries. Work with Nautical Archaeology Society Engage local groups to survey vessels. Need co-ordinated dating programme to research undated vessels recorded by rapid coastal zone survey.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, WRECK, MARITIME, Coastal And Intertidal

LM54: How can we develop our understanding of the distribution networks for pottery production sites?

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Regional pottery studies examining distributions from production centres and the apparent biases within the data and the perceptions of the nature of the data. (5.7:5.45) Reference collection required for Medieval ceramics. Encourage detectorists to pick up and record their pottery with PAS through targeted talks – many currently dismiss it. Mapping of production centres is needed, possibly on volunteer network model.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, POTTERY KILN, POTTERY MANUFACTURING SITE, typology, Synthesis

LM55: How can we develop a ceramic typology for the medieval period?

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Apply the Rainford model for early Post-Medieval typologies to medieval pottery forms.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, POTTERY, typology

LM56: How can we identify different patterns of social interaction from artefact assemblage studies?

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Artefacts studies contrasting well dated urban assemblages with those from nearby contemporary rural sites and contrasting high status site assemblages with those from ordinary sites. This should enable insights into different patterns of interaction and breadth of contacts between different social groups. (5.7:5.5.46)

Contrast urban and rural, high and low status sites.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, society, Synthesis, Artefact studies

LM57: What are the inter relationships between urban settlements and their rural hinterlands?

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Use distribution and trade patterns, central place theory models. Fairs at abbeys and priories were banned in the early 15th century but where did they take place (eg. outer court at Whalley Abbey) and did they continue? Expand and build on Extensive Urban Surveys. Are urban settlements always administrative centres? If not then these should be included.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement, Trade

LM58: What contribution did monasticism make to Medieval production and trade and how was this impacted by the Dissolution?

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Study decline of Cistercian wares and production of imitation wares. Changes in iron production and other traditionally monastic based industry. Huge amounts of iron production in the Lake District and there was a big impact on organisation, and a gap from mid-16th to mid-17th centuries. Impact on the Lake District and Furness area.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MEDIEVAL, POTTERY, IRON WORKING SITE, Trade, Production

LM59: How can we identify the extent of the land-based communications network systems and how far these were influenced by landownership types including monastic?

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Can we identify and map the major communications routes through the Pennines and from north to south across the region. Use artefact distribution studies alongside landscape survey, place name and documentary evidence. Do we have canals and navigable rivers systems from this period?
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
ROAD, MEDIEVAL, Documentary Research, Canal, River, Communications And Movement, Place name study, Artefact studies

LM60: How do we improve our understanding of coin production and coin distribution in the North West?

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Analysis of regional distribution patterns alongside that of hoards and their composition. Link to documentary research. Ensure coinage distribution and other artefacts studies are analysed together to establish chronological relationships. Can this be linked with where the metal came from eg. Cumbria mines and which one? Use PAS database. Many small hoards (of 2 to 10 coins) may be overlooked but need to be included for study. The study of clippings and counterfeits should be of interest.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
METAL EXTRACTION SITE, MEDIEVAL, COIN, COIN HOARD, Documentary Research, Portable Antiquities Scheme, Artefact studies

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