Post Medieval

Key overview statements to address for the Post-Medieval period:

A number of overarching comments came out of workshop discussions for the framework that should be taken into consideration for the post-medieval period:

  • There is a great need for an agreed terminology for ware types – vessel forms are well-established. There are inconsistencies in reporting of fabrics and weight etc. and standardisation is required. Guidelines should be provided. Recording of the Rainford black glazed earthenware could be used as a model/template. The Medieval Research Group is producing a fabric recording guide which will be published soon and this could be used as a template.
  • We need to identify key sites of publication and train a new generation of finds specialists, helped through a North West finds network.
  • Landscaping for leisure is an important research theme that deserves more attention – the evolution of formal landscaping and how parks were adapted into the industrial period. An example is Dunham Massey where the deer parks were altered. There should be a focus on looking at the origins of parks and their impact on existing settlements, such as clearance.
  • Can we do more to identify pre-1800 abandoned farms? Cheshire is undertaking an overview of stripped and recorded Post Medieval sites abandoned by the early 1800s. There is a proposal to digitise Cumbria archives which would help.
  • The study of graffiti and protective markings is a key recent research theme and useful work is now being carried out on a wide ranging set of buildings. This subject area of belief systems should include concealed clothing, witch bottles etc. A project on concealed clothing has been running, based in Birmingham.
  • Development of dual occupations amongst the farming community was important for early industry, such as early textile mills, mineral extraction, weaving, glass working, nail making. We need to study this more and the land holding rights of farmers (relative success of tenants vs freehold) that stimulated the dual economy.
  • A lot more can be done on identifying Civil War siege works, town defences, castle adaptations, minor battles and skirmishes. PAS data can be useful for the latter. Look at scaring on church towers. The post conflict evidence is also under-studied, such as slighting evidence, impact of confiscation for Royalist supporters (e.g. Wigan town, Lathom House, Blundell Estate in Sefton), but also the flip side of this in terms of the growth of the mercantile class, changes in family fortunes and release of mineral rights which were previously Crown controlled.
  • A key research area should be early river navigations and their link to exchange.
  • The links to Ireland and the Isle of Man and their influence on the region’s archaeology need to be included.

Post Medieval Research Questions

Chronologies and Buildings

PM01: How can we develop Post-Medieval ceramic typologies and identify differences across social strata, rural and urban environments and the regions in the North West?

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Stratified artefact sequences from both small towns and rural settlements need to be collected, in order to establish the character of ceramic use throughout the region and to create the basis for socio-economic interpretation. (6.1:6.1) Unpublished ceramic groups, especially those from areas with no previous evidence (which need to be identified), should be published as a priority. The relevant grey literature should be made generally available. (6.1:6.2) A common terminology for regional ware types needs to be devised so that ceramic types can be objectively compared both within the region and beyond. The Medieval Pottery Research Group regional type series should be extended to include all ceramic types from this period. (6.1:6.3) The North West Region Medieval Pottery Research Group doesn’t have a current type series that covers the whole of the North West to extend. There is one pulled together many years ago by Julie Edwards, although this is ‘Chester-centric’. This includes post-medieval material. Julie Edwards published a synthesis of the region’s medieval pottery in 2000, which is still largely current. There are significant differences in ware types, and perhaps production methods, between different parts of the region (possibly separated in very broad terms by the River Ribble), and especially for the medieval ceramics, but also for late 15th- and 16th-century wares. In particular, the late medieval tradition of Reduced Greenware (see also ‘production’ theme) appears to have continued in the north of the region until the 17th, and possibly early 18th century, although it is largely absent from the ceramic record in the southern parts of the region. The distribution and dating of this particular ware type does require further study. A concerted effort should be made to create regional syntheses, whether by period, ceramic type or class of site. (6.1:6.4) Several important assemblages have been published in recent years, notably Rob Philpott’s work at Rainford, but also assemblages from Liverpool. Assemblages of post-medieval pottery have been recovered from excavations in a number of other small (and large) towns across the region. See key overview comments on this subject. A complete regional type series could be published and made accessible. Dissolution period deposits provide valuable dated horizons on ecclesiastical sites for understanding change in material culture and characterising ceramic and other assemblages in the 16th century. Identify and excavate local pottery/ceramic production sites, plus methodologies and training in how to find them, eg. such as with the Rainford community excavations. Previously excavated sites need to be written up and published.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, POTTERY, Collections research, typology, Synthesis, Artefact studies

PM02: How does the transition from timber to stone or brick differ according to building types and across the region?

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Methods should be developed to extricate and understand the motivations behind the desire to invest in ‘rebuilding’ in the region. (6.1:6.5) Should include timber to brick, especially in Cheshire in 17th and 18th centuries. Materials in roof structures, and water control including lead detailing need to be included.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, BUILDING, TIMBER, BRICK, ROOF TILE, Drainage System

PM03: How do large domestic buildings relate to their wider social context?

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Elite houses need to be studied in their social context. (6.1:6.6) Possible focus on service wings/apartments as well as the main house.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, BUILDING, society

PM04: Where do 16th to 17th century structures survive and how does this inform our understanding of the chronology and evolution of brickwork during this period?

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Sites of well-preserved house remains and their environs should be targeted for excavation. (6.1:6.8) Expand to include standing buildings. Chronology of brick as a building material in the region.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, EXCAVATION, POST MEDIEVAL, BUILDING, BRICK, HOUSE, Building Fabric Analysis

PM05: How can dendrochronology sequences inform our understanding of building evolution, development and change during the Post-Medieval period?

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Synthesis and evaluation of recent dendrochronology surveys. Use dendro dating as part of WSI for building recording as and where appropriate. Need a chronology of upper crucks.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, POST MEDIEVAL, BUILDING, DENDROCHRONOLOGY, Chronology, Synthesis

Environment

PM06: How can archaeology inform our understanding of climactic events (such as the Little Ice Age) and river/estuary silting during this period?

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Landscape archaeology projects should be undertaken to investigate the impact of the Little Ice Age and the effects of coastal change. (6.2:6.9)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, Coastal And Intertidal, Climate change

PM07: How are plants and animals exploited during this period and how is this linked to changes in consumption patterns?

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Sample appropriate deposits for palaeoenvironmental evidence wherever possible to gain information on the exploitation of plants and animals, especially in relation to changes in consumption. (6.2:6.10)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, ANIMAL, PLANT, Palaeoenvironmental Analysis, Agriculture

PM08: How does coastal exploitation during the post medieval period affect the wider environment and climate?

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Intra- and inter-regional coastal surveys. Sedimentary analysis to gauge climate changes. Synthesise and continue to look for lacunae in CITIZAN coastal Zone work in NW.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, GEOLOGICAL SEDIMENT, Coastal And Intertidal, Synthesis, Climate change

Settlement and Land use

PM09: How did ecological changes linked to agricultural improvement impact upon the wider landscape?

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Non-site specific palaeoenvironmental analysis, perhaps as landscape transects, should be undertaken to examine the ecological changes brought by agricultural improvement. These would be of most value when closely linked to the documentary and topographical study of landscape and settlement. (6.3:6.11)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY, Documentary Research, Palaeoenvironmental Analysis, Landscape, Agriculture

PM10: Where does pre18th century enclosure survive in the region?

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Examine and map pre-18th century enclosure across the region using the county Historic Landscape Characterisation as a starting point. (6.3:6.12)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
ENCLOSURE, POST MEDIEVAL, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION

PM11: How can palaeoenvironmental indicators of consumption enhance our understanding of the wider patterning and social context?

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All post-medieval deposits should be targeted for the systematic recovery of shellfish remains and fish bones. They require analysis to record size, shape and parasitic infestations in order to establish location of sources and any seasonality of harvesting. (6.3:6.13) Changes in consumption patterns should be examined across the region and between various social groups. (6.3:6.17)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, BONE, FOOD PREPARATION AND CONSUMPTION, MARINE MOLLUSCA REMAINS, SHELL

PM12: How can the study of the abandonment of farmsteads at this time help refine the regional settlement pattern?

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Regional survey of farmstead creation and abandonment would help refine the regional settlement pattern identified by Wrathmell and Roberts. (6.3:6.14) Excavations of abandoned farms and cottages should be a high priority, especially where the ownership or tenancy is documented, in order to study the material culture of individual households. (6.3:6.15) Use the completed Historic Landscape Characterisation dataset. NEW Do we have the mapping to identify those abandoned before the mid-18th century? Can we do more to identify pre-1800 abandoned farms? A large sample of post-medieval farms has been subject to archaeological study (building survey and excavation following demolition) at Kingsway (Rochdale) and Cutacre (Bolton and Salford), which is currently being prepared for publication as a monograph. The material culture from these farmsteads recovered from excavation, however, was not particularly informative, not least as it reflected later 20th-century occupation of the buildings. In order to inform the material culture of individual households during the post-medieval period, it may be necessary to identify and investigate those farmsteads that had been abandoned before the mid-18th century, and have potential for buried remains to survive intact. For Cheshire there is an overview of strip and record excavations for post-medieval sites abandoned in the early 1800s.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, EXCAVATION, POST MEDIEVAL, FARMSTEAD, DESERTED SETTLEMENT, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, Settlement pattern, Artefact studies

PM13: Where do 16th and 17th century structures survive and how does this inform our understanding of the evolution of settlement patterns during this period?

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The extent of surviving structures from the 16th and 17th centuries should be mapped throughout the region and surviving elements of proto-industrial settlements. This would inform conservation policies and enable characterisation of the resource in order to examine the nature and impact of new monument types in the transition from medieval to Georgian patterns of living. (6.1:6.7) Using models such as that proposed by Trinder (2002), attempts should be made to identify the post-medieval elements that may have distinguished the future industrial towns from those that failed to develop early in the Industrial Revolution (McNeil & Nevell 2003, 107). (6.3:6.16) An urban atlas charting and categorising the growth of towns across the region would assist in examining the transformation of towns from small medieval markets into the variety of urban forms that began to form in the late 17th and 18th centuries. (6.3:6.17) How do we identify earlier buildings behind later facades?

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, POST MEDIEVAL, BUILDING, Building Fabric Analysis, Synthesis, Settlement pattern

PM14: How can we establish a typology of buildings and other structures associated with country estates?

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Identify and record rural historic environment features such as deer barns and stables. Deer Barns have already been surveyed as a Post Grad study at UCLAN (contact Chris O’Flaherty, course leader

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, COUNTRY ESTATE, ESTATE BUILDING, Synthesis

PM15: How well recorded and understood are farming landscapes, field patterns, distributions of buildings and building types?

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Review Historic Landscape Characterisation, estate and farm surveys, identify gaps in coverage. Bull pens, hen coops, pig sties, middens, 1920’s/30’s documentations of older buildings, synthesis of pre-construction surveys. Regional “Expected” distribution of building types versus outliers eg. bank barns. Synthesis of farm landscapes in context. Need to examine monastic sites through Dissolution to post-Dissolution – what was destroyed, what kept and what adapted?

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, COUNTRY ESTATE, MIDDEN, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, FIELD SURVEY, FARM BUILDING, AGRICULTURAL BUILDING, PIGSTY, HEN BATTERY, Synthesis

PM16: What was the relationship of country houses to local rural villages?

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Landscape study, historic development and change of villages close to large country estates.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, COUNTRY ESTATE, VILLAGE, FIELD SURVEY, COUNTRY HOUSE

PM17: How have recent detailed surveys of medieval and Tudor halls informed our understanding of their evolution and transition to modern housing?

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Medieval and Tudor halls: a number of big surveys in recent time need to be synthesised and their transition to modern housing.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, POST MEDIEVAL, HOUSE, ESTATE BUILDING, TUDOR

PM18: What insights can graffiti and protective markings give us of medieval and later societies and their beliefs?

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Apotropaic markings in higher status timber framed buildings – protective marks and graffiti. Recently been studied at Little Moreton Hall and Ordsall Hall. Review effectiveness of recent surveys and roll out programme across North-West, training and using local heritage groups. Include witch bottles, concealed clothing (project based in Birmingham is online). Links with Q23 and Q24.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, POST MEDIEVAL, WITCH BOTTLE, GRAFFITI, TIMBER FRAMED BUILDING, PERSONAL SYMBOL, Apotropaic Mark, Training

PM19: How can the study of leisure landscaping inform our understanding of the changing landscape in this period?

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Need to examine early post medieval deer parks and their impact on existing rural settlement eg. clearance. Look at leisure landscaping and evolution of formal landscapes including parks eg. Dunham Massey deer park altered. Cross-over into Industrial period.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, COUNTRY ESTATE, CLEARANCE, DEER PARK, COUNTRY PARK, PARK, Leisure

Religion, Ritual and Ceremony

PM20: What was the impact of the Dissolution and Reformation upon ecclesiastical buildings and monastic estates?

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Use archaeological studies of the monastic suppression to inform our understanding of how the monastic estate declined during this period Combined documentary and landscape studies should be undertaken of landed estates gained as a result of monastic suppression to identify patterns of adoption and adaptation of monastic buildings and estate organization. (6.4:6.19) Links with Q26.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, ESTATE BUILDING, FIELD SURVEY, TUDOR, MONASTIC DWELLING, Documentary Research, Monastic Precinct, Landscape

PM21: How did buildings, settlements and landscapes associated with dissenting populations evolve and develop during this period?

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An identification survey is needed across the region of buildings and spaces used by early dissenting congregations. The architecture and material culture of estates owned by recusant families and areas where Puritanism and later dissent-dominated, should be examined to see if differences are evident that can be related to religious practice and allegiance. (6.4:6.24)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
RELIGION OR RITUAL, SETTLEMENT, POST MEDIEVAL, BUILDING, RELIGIOUS STRUCTURAL OBJECT, Landscape

PM22: How do burial practices evolve during this period and into the Industrial period?

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A regional gazetteer should be prepared of pre-18th century burial monuments. (6.4:6.21) Study of burial monuments and burial practice should look to address the possibility of gender specific attitudes to death. (6.4:6.22) Opportunities should be taken to examine burial groups especially where there is good associated documentary data. (6.4:6.23)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BURIAL, POST MEDIEVAL, FUNERARY SITE, CEMETERY, RELIGIOUS RITUAL AND FUNERARY, Synthesis

PM23: How does the folk religion tradition develop during this period?

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Historic literature, PAS finds, apotropaic markings, excavation evidence. PhD based in Durham studying this. Concealed clothing. Shoes, corsets, and other items of clothing are often found built into walls of 16th to 19th century date. Need more data on this. Does it occur in the NW? Links with Q18.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
EXCAVATION, POST MEDIEVAL, CLOTHING, Documentary Research, Apotropaic Mark, Portable Antiquities Scheme

PM24: How common are apotropaic markings in timber and stone churches and what is their meaning?

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Adapt and develop successful models from within and outside the region to survey early churches in the North-West. Look for opportunities to engage the help of volunteers from local heritage groups and elsewhere. Train local volunteers to spread coverage of the survey and harness local knowledge and enthusiasm. Links with PM18.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, POST MEDIEVAL, CHURCH, GRAFFITI, Apotropaic Mark, Training, Community project

PM25: What does the study of the development of church architecture tell us about the authority of the church?

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Review studies of the development of church architecture to inform our understanding of the architecture of authority.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, CHURCH, ARCHITECTURE, Synthesis

PM26: What is the changing character of former religious houses and their influence on the landscape in the post-dissolution period?

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Landscape surveys, historic research into estates, place name evidence, study of adapted buildings and re-used building materials. Link to documentary research where such resources exist. Links with PM20.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BUILDING SURVEY, POST MEDIEVAL, COUNTRY ESTATE, FIELD SURVEY, RELIGIOUS HOUSE, HISTORIC AREA ASSESSMENT, Documentary Research, Place name study

Technology and Production

PM27: How do the industries associated with the North West evolve and develop during this period?

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Early industries should be studied in relation to their landscape setting. (6.5:6.25) A range of scientific analytic techniques should be applied to the most common regional and inter-regional products in order to allow positive identification of products from different centres. (6.5:6.26) What sort of ‘scientific techniques’ could be applied to establish the origin of products? Previous studies have demonstrated that thin-sectioning of pottery fragments in the North West, for instance, is inconclusive due to the homogeneity of glacial clays; however, XRF could be used for sources of lead and tin. Early workshops need to be identified and studied especially with respect to their impact on work organisation and social and gender relations. (6.5:6.27) The industrial worker settlements require identification and examination. (6.5:6.28) A key issue is identifying the precise location of different production centres during the post-medieval period, particularly pottery and clay tobacco pipe kilns, brick-making sites, and glass-working sites; Were there any worker settlements established in the North West during the post-medieval period, or was this actually a phenomenon of the industrial period? Were there any areas of post-medieval towns in the North West dominated by groups of particular artisan craftsmen? Rainford (clay pipes) and Prescot (pottery) are two examples. Excavations of rural tanneries should be a priority. (6.5:6.31)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
MANUFACTURE AND PROCESSING, INDUSTRIAL SITE, SETTLEMENT, EXCAVATION, POST MEDIEVAL, POTTERY KILN, POTTERY WORKS, X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY, WORKERS TEMPORARY SETTLEMENT, CLAY PIPE KILN, BRICK KILN, BRICKWORKS, GLASS WORKING SITE, GLASSMAKING SITE, TANNERY

PM28: How can we identify domestic buildings adapted for the textile industry?

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Establish a typology of regional building traditions. Research the development of industry and its impact upon landscape and settlement morphology.  Dual occupations, farmers doing industry such as textiles (weaving/sheep rearing, first textile mills), mineral extraction, glass making, nail making etc. Study the relative rights and success of tenants vs free holders.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, POST MEDIEVAL, GLASS WORKING SITE, IRON WORKING SITE, TEXTILE, TEXTILE INDUSTRY SITE, FARM, MINERAL EXTRACTION SITE, GLASS, NAIL, typology

PM29: How do the extractive industries develop during this period?

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Analyse Historic Landscape Characterisation data, geological mapping, early historic maps, landscape surveys, targeted excavations, LIDAR, aerial photos. Salt production. Is there evidence for coastal salt works? Use place name evidence, LIDAR. Early coal extraction sites on the Lancashire Coalfield may be seen as a priority

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE, LIDAR SURVEY, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, MINING INDUSTRY SITE, POST MEDIEVAL, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, FIELD SURVEY, GEOLOGICAL MARKS, SALT WORKS, COAL MINING SITE

PM30: How do we identify and present the various traditions of pottery production in the NW during the post medieval period?

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Identify sites, liaise with NW archaeology contractors with backlogs (identify sites waiting to be written), identify funding/projects to get them to publication stage. Publication of a regional synthesis of Post Medieval ceramic type series needs to be produced and made accessible (monograph) – long term project involving synthesis of reported sites and grey literature.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
CERAMIC, POST MEDIEVAL, POTTERY, ASSEMBLAGE

PM31: How do we standardise the recording of ware types and fabric types of North West post medieval pottery?

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Agree on terminology for ware types. Regional type series begun by MPRG (access?). Requires meetings and correspondence with pottery specialists in NW and MPRG finds group (Jeff Speakman, Julie Edwards, Ian Miller). Identify and contact finds specialists active in the NW (consultants/units). Material codes need to be used consistently by depts. Create guidance for material categories. MPRG is beginning to work on fabric type series? – needs a publication of NW ware type series. Use Rainford publication as template for 16th-17th century. Support finds officers by providing time and resources for training and research – CPD. Target finds specialist to run specific finds workshops. Identify funding to research assemblages, providing key practice for finds researchers to develop expertise.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, MATERIAL, POTTERY

PM32: How do pottery industries develop throughout the post medieval period?

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The past ten years has seen some major post-medieval ceramic assemblages brought to publication, including those in Liverpool and Chester, and the material from Rainford. A key site that awaits analysis and publication is the tin-glazed earthenware factory at Lancaster, and excavations in Kendal. A broad chronology of post-medieval fabric types has been established from Cistercian and Midland Purple-type wares, Blackwares, Yellow wares, slipwares and tin-glazed earthenwares, through to common late 18th-century types. Attention could usefully be focused on the distribution of Reduced Greenwares, which seem to have been restricted to the north of the region. Similarly, Midland Purple-type wares seem to be prevalent in the southern part of the region during the 16th and 17th centuries, but largely absent from the north. Further work plotting the distribution of these fabric type would be useful; Investigate tradition of Tudor Greenware in North England (possible PhD topic). Identify and excavate production sites/kilns and sites with well-dated phases in order to establish pottery tradition periods and cut off points of styles.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
CERAMIC, POST MEDIEVAL, POTTERY, ASSEMBLAGE, TUDOR

PM33: How can we identify a regional characterisation of kiln structures in the North West?

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Synthesis of known excavated kiln sites, identification of form and fabric of kilns, structure type and location within the landscape. Link to above pottery tradition identifications (Q29). The precise location of pottery production centres in the 16th and 17th centuries is still required;

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
CERAMIC, POST MEDIEVAL, POTTERY, POTTERY KILN, POTTERY MANUFACTURING SITE, KILN, KILN WASTE

PM34: What can pottery traditions and production tell us about trades of commerce in the region?

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Identify key areas of production (previous work/publications). Synthesis of main industrial sites in NW in publication (Rainford, Prescot, Liverpool, Chester). The ports of Chester and Liverpool have been subject to major studies, and both have been published recently (replacement of Chester by Liverpool a consequence of the deep-water approach afforded by the Mersey, and the creation of the wet docks. Old Dock, Liverpool not published. This had a large dump of ceramics.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL SITE, PORT, POST MEDIEVAL, POTTERY, POTTERY KILN, POTTERY MANUFACTURING SITE, KILN WASTE, COMMERCIAL

Trade, Exchange and Interaction

PM35: How do markets and their associated buildings develop during this period?

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Market spaces and early market halls should be studied to understand the physical development of markets and their relationship to their urban or proto-urban settings and their hinterlands. (6.6:6.36)

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, BUILDING, MARKET, MARKET HALL, MARKET PLACE

PM36: How and why do areas of maritime interaction (e.g. ports) evolve, change and decline during this period?

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Target for investigation ports where little is known, study Chester and Liverpool together to see how/why one took over from the other. Lancaster Quay, and the other Lancashire ports, should be reviewed to understand the early development of port facilities. (6.6:6.37) The early development of the port of Lancaster needs to be traced to the medieval period, whilst its expansion in the 18th century is perhaps a topic for the Industrial Period Agenda The Quay was extended in the late 1740s). However, the development and chronology of other early ports/harbours/landing stages along the North West coast requires further investigation. This may include the extent of Preston’s port facilities during the medieval/post-medieval periods. Look at how well studied and understood are small-scale coastal trade sites? Map and record through Historic Landscape Characterisation, coastal surveys etc. Identify extent of coverage and undertake surveys and historic research on poorly understood examples.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, PORT, WHARF, MEDIEVAL, POST MEDIEVAL, HISTORIC LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISATION, MARINA, MARITIME, QUAY

PM37: How can we better understand trade routes and their context?

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Map known and potential trade routes, especially salt routes. Look at wider context: economy, landscape/settlement impact, industrialisation, etc. Further study of the early river navigations is required, particularly the locks and associated water-management, wharfage facilities and boat-building yards connected with the Douglas Navigation, Mersey Irwell Navigation and the Weaver Navigation. See Transport theme.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
INDUSTRIAL, WHARF, EXCHANGE, BOAT, POST MEDIEVAL, TRANSPORT, RIVER NAVIGATION, SALT SHIP, RIVER LOCK, BOAT YARD

PM38: In what ways can we discern the impact of new colonial connections on the material culture and architecture of the North West?

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Examples include slave owning houses, impact of merchant wealth on buildings and landscapes, and material culture.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, MATERIAL, ASSEMBLAGE, MARKET PLACE

PM39: What new types of food and methods of food preparation and consumption were introduced into North West England and where did they come from?

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Look at whether they imported as products or produced locally. Identify food types and consumption practices from publications, journals/diaries etc and relate to excavated artifacts and production sites.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, FOOD PREPARATION AND CONSUMPTION

Defence, Warfare and Military Activity

PM40: How are different types of fortifications adapted and used during this period?

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Examine castles for their post-medieval use and adaptation. (6.7:6.38) There is a requirement for up to date detailed record surveys of fortified houses and bastles. (6.7:6.39) Regional or county studies are required of the post-medieval use and modification of fortified houses to meet changing requirements and socio-cultural developments. (6.7:6.40) Slighting evidence and post-conflict consequences such as confiscation and taxation eg. Royalist supporters at Wigan, Lathom House, Blundell estates (Sefton area). Flip side saw growth of mercantile class, changes in family fortunes, release of mineral rights (previously Crown controlled). Look at Lathom House and other siege evidence. Review and synthesise – there is a lot of mis-information out there. Compare photogrammetic survey and interpretation of Lancaster Castle with documentary evidence for slighting and post-Civil War repair.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
CASTLE, DEFENCE, POST MEDIEVAL, MINERAL, FORT, MILITARY BUILDING, GLASS, CIVIL DEFENCE SITE, FORTIFICATION, SIEGE, PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SURVEY

PM41: How can archaeological studies inform our understanding of the region battles and sieges during this period?

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Archaeological surveys and reviews, using a multi-disciplinary battery of techniques, are required to examine the nature of the archaeological remains associated with the region’s battles and sieges. (6.7:6.41) Winwick battlefield has recently been Scheduled. Identify Civil War siege works, town defences, castle defences, minor battles and skirmishes. Use PAS data, scarring on churches.
Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
CASTLE, DEFENCE, BATTLEFIELD, POST MEDIEVAL, SIEGEWORK, CIVIL DEFENCE SITE, SIEGE, TOWN DEFENCES

Transport and Infrastructure

PM42: How can archaeological investigations inform our understanding of the development of transport and infrastructure in the early post medieval period?

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Excavation and scientific analysis of 18th and 19th century dock deposits. (7.6:7.43) Review previous archaeological surveys and excavations, published material and unpublished reports, HER data. Liverpool Old Dock not yet published. Review techniques used for projects such as Liverpool Old Dock and how successful these were.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
DOCK, EXCAVATION, POST MEDIEVAL, TRANSPORT

PM43: What roles have different transport systems played in the development of industry, commerce, agriculture and settlement?

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Investigate the use of rivers for transport and power. Study early river navigations and links to exchange

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
EXCHANGE, AGRICULTURE AND SUBSISTENCE, POST MEDIEVAL, RIVER DOCK, TRANSPORT, RIVER NAVIGATION

PM44: How were transport infrastructures improved and how was this related to the developing urban and market hierarchy?

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Research the development of industry and its impact upon landscape and settlement morphology. Topographic studies, history mapping, landscape studies and LIDAR and aerial photos, documentary research.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
LIDAR SURVEY, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, SETTLEMENT, POST MEDIEVAL, TRANSPORT, TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY, MARKET

PM45: How can we better understand the evolution of rural versus urban bridge construction?

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Establish typologies and chronologies of bridges. Identify gaps in understanding.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
BRIDGE, POST MEDIEVAL, TRANSPORT

PM46: How can we improve the understanding, recording and protection of surviving horse infrastructure?

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Identify extent and record/protect rare or especially significant examples, for instance coaching inns, stabling, bridleways, paddocks, race courses etc.

Status:
Active
Date of next review:
20/08/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
North West Research Framework
Categories:
POST MEDIEVAL, TRANSPORT, STABLE, RACECOURSE, COACHING INN, COACHING INN STABLE, BRIDLEWAY, PADDOCK

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