Built Environment: Modern

Recognising 20th-century heritage as an integrated part of historic places

20th-century heritage forms a significant layer of our history, yet despite increasing conservation interest in this period, many 20th-century heritage assets are at risk of neglect or lack of management, insensitive change or demolition. There is a growing need to better understand, appreciate and assess 20th-century heritage as an integrated part of historic places.

As with any other period, the heritage of the 20th-century, reflects wider social, cultural, economic, political and technological change. These changes facilitated, amongst other things, a transformation in England’s planning philosophy and culture as well as the emergence of new building types, construction techniques and materials, adding another layer of complexity to England’s historic landscape character.

Appreciation of the importance of 20th-century heritage is acknowledged across the United Kingdom, Europe and many other parts of the world. This has also developed alongside a distinct philosophical and practical approach to conservation that is alive to the issues raised by themes such as the archaeology of conflict, the political sensitivity of recent heritage and the problems posed by new building techniques such as reinforced concrete.[1]

Despite recognition of its importance the wider contribution of ‘everyday’ 20th-century heritage, particularly post war heritage, is often overlooked, undervalued and under-represented on Local Lists and Historic Environment Records and even though English Heritage’s 1980s national resurvey extended the typological and date ranges of structures and building types recommended for listing, only a very small percentage of 20th-century heritage assets meet the criteria for national designation.

The late 1920s filling station in Waresley, Hartlebury was noted in the 2016-2020 Parish Plan and Village Design Statement as a cherished landmark for many parishioners. The base of British racing driver and aviator Geoff Richardson, the building had also been noted, on the county Historic Environment Record, as the best-known example of an early 20th-century rural filling station in Worcestershire, and in Morrison's and Minnis' (with English Heritage) 2012 book 'Carscapes', as an example of a little altered rural filling station.
The late 1920s filling station in Waresley, Hartlebury was noted in the 2016-2020 Parish Plan and Village Design Statement as a ‘cherished landmark’ for many parishioners. The base of British racing driver and aviator Geoff Richardson, the building had also been noted, on the county Historic Environment Record, as the ‘best-known example of an early 20th-century rural filling station in Worcestershire’, and in Morrison’s and Minnis’ (with English Heritage) 2012 book ‘Carscapes’, as ‘an example of a little altered rural filling station’. An application for the demolition of existing buildings and re-development of the site was approved in 2017 with a condition for a programme of Historic Building Recording prior to demolition.
Photo © Worcestershire County Council

Identification of 20th-century heritage of local significance – ‘how do we protect what we don’t know what we have?’

Identification of 20th-century heritage is an important first step in ensuring that the most distinctive can be retained and adapted as part of future communities and places.

Historic Environment Records, Local Lists and Neighborhood Development Plans are valuable mechanisms through which heritage assets, including 20th-century heritage assets, that make a positive contribution to local character and sense of place, can be identified by Local Planning Authorities and Communities.

Buildings and public places dating to the 20th-century can make a positive contribution to a place, including its local character and distinctiveness. While not all locally interesting 20th-century buildings and public places can justifiably be retained, they should be considered as per any ‘non-designated heritage asset’, in planning decisions, and therefore, in those cases where retention/managed change is not achievable, preservation by record should be supported. The National Planning Policy Framework Para 39 describes non-designated heritage assets as – ‘buildings, monuments, sites, places, areas or landscapes identified by plan-making bodies as having a degree of heritage significance meriting consideration in planning decisions but which do not meet the criteria for designated heritage assets’.

The small Roman-Catholic Church of Our Lady of Ostra Brama, which opened in 1963 to serve the needs of Kidderminster’s Polish community, was identified as a building of local significance on the 2004 Kidderminster Local List.
The small Roman-Catholic Church of Our Lady of Ostra Brama, which opened in 1963 to serve the needs of Kidderminster’s Polish community, was identified as a building of local significance on the 2004 Kidderminster Local List. Photo © Worcestershire County Council

Adding a New Layer – 20th-century non-domestic buildings and public places in Worcestershire

Worcestershire’s Historic Environment Record has been working to identify, record and better understand the significance of 20th-century non-domestic buildings and public places across the County. Many more await discovery and assessment!

Funded by Historic England the multi-layered Adding a New Layer – 20th-century non-domestic buildings and public places in Worcestershire Project also aimed to strengthen the public’s awareness and appreciation of ‘everyday’ 20th-century heritage and celebrate the extra layer of richness it brings to both our lives and landscapes.

Alongside national and local guidance to support professionals and communities to identify and assess 20th-century heritage, the project developed a strategy for future research in Worcestershire[2]. This strategy has been divided into questions for key themes – which extend across and between topics and key topics.

Research Strategy for 20th-century heritage in Worcestershire

Key Themes

Historic development

WORCSB_MOD01: Patterns of change: What is the pattern and morphology of pre-war, inter-war and post-war development, of different types, across Worcestershire? How do they relate to each other?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Second world war, Urban extension, Settlement pattern, First world war, Settlement morphology, Urban

WORCSB_MOD02: Drivers of change: To what extent were changes driven by national need or local change?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Urban extension, Settlement pattern, Settlement morphology, Urban

WORCSB_MOD03: Time depth: How does 20th-century heritage relate to the historic development of landscape, as mapped by Historic Landscape Characterisation? Can this help to tell us to what extent places of the recent past have been created afresh or adapted, with retained elements of earlier places?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Historic landscape characterisation, New town, Urban extension, Settlement pattern, Settlement morphology, Urban

WORCSB_MOD04: Design context: To what extent does 20th-century built heritage in Worcestershire reflect wider national and international developments in architectural form and design?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Architecture

WORCSB_MOD05: Social values: How are changing social values – in social class, the role of families and in the places of women and children in society – reflected in different types of buildings and places, and how they have developed over time?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Architecture, Values

WORCSB_MOD06: Identity: How do different styles of buildings, and the elements that make up places, reflect the identities of different groups in society? What is the evidence for these being driven by local communities, developed out of national movements (such as religious revival or political organisation) or both? To what extent is ‘hidden archaeology’ – the archaeology of individuals and groups whose activities have been unrecognised, unauthorised or illegal until recent decades, including queer archaeology – invigorating a reconstruction and reinterpretation of 20th-century buildings and places?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Society, Identity, Community, Values, Interpretation

WORCSB_MOD07: Globalisation, industrialisation and technology: What is the evidence for social, technological and industrial change as shaped by international developments, from Britain’s place as the epicentre of the Empire to the development of international trading systems

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Industrial, 20th century, Building, Architecture, Society, Technology, Trade

WORCSB_MOD08: Consumerism: The changing shape of consumer society and its influence on all aspects of life and landscape ‘is one of the defining characteristics of the age’[3] – from shops and shopping to the way in which increased leisure time and new technologies have enabled access to places for leisure and recreation. Can we define different types of places and landscape whose character has been created or shaped by different types of consumer behaviour?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Industrial, 20th century, Building, Architecture, Shop, Recreation, Recreation and leisure, Society, Technology, Trade, Leisure, Characterisation

WORCSB_MOD09: National and local government legislation and policy has also reached into many aspects of life and landscapes, from the protection afforded to nature and heritage to large-scale strategic planning. For example, to what extent were strategic plans for post-war development in Worcestershire, including the 1946 Minoprio and Spencely Masterplan for Worcester City adopted? How has this impacted later 20th and 21st Century development across the county?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Settlement, 20th century, Building, Architecture, Plan, Urban settlement, City, Settlement pattern, Settlement morphology

WORCSB_MOD10: Migration, integration and multi-culturalism: What evidence is there in the built environment for the construction, use and adaptation of 20th-century immigrants from the British Empire and other parts of the world? What are the similarities and differences? Does the evidence change from one of adaptation to the creation of new buildings and places, notably places of worship but also including shops and restaurants?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Place of worship, Restaurant, Shop, Community

WORCSB_MOD11: Rural labour: What is the evidence for transient labour in rural areas and where is it from?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Rural settlement, Community, Rural community, Rural

WORCSB_MOD12: Disability: How and when have buildings and places been adapted, and how successfully, to suit the needs of people with disabilities or additional needs?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture
The Bluebird – formally Harvino - toffee factory, in Hunnington, was designed and built in 1925-7 for Harry Vincent Limited of Birmingham. Designed by S. N. Cooke F.R.I.B.A., of Birminghamm, the factory was developed as part of a larger ‘model’ scheme, which incorporated both workers housing and recreational facilities. In 2020 the administration building, welfare building, and boundary wall, railings and gates were listed for their architectural and historic interest and group value.
The Bluebird – formally Harvino – toffee factory, in Hunnington, was designed and built in 1925-7 for Harry Vincent Limited of Birmingham. Designed by S. N. Cooke F.R.I.B.A., of Birmingham, the factory was developed as part of a larger ‘model’ scheme, which incorporated both workers housing and recreational facilities. In 2020 the administration building, welfare building, and boundary wall, railings and gates were listed for their architectural and historic interest and group value. The 20th-century saw a significant shift in industrial development, facilitated by the expanding road network and spread of mains electricity, with many manufacturers moving to cheaper land, with room to expand, on the urban/rural fringe. From the late 18th-century philanthropic landowners and industrialists had also recognised the importance of providing materially decent conditions for their workers and the ‘value’ of a healthy, happy, ‘socialised’ workforce. This was supported, from the later 19th-century and particularly following the Great War, by a wide-spread shift in social attitudes towards health and welfare, community life and recreation. Photo © Worcestershire County Council

Recording and Conservation

WORCSB_MOD13: To what extent have 20th-century buildings of different dates and types, demolished or re-developed in Worcestershire, since the publication of the National Planning Policy Framework in 2012, been preserved through building recording mitigation?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Buildings recording and investigation

WORCSB_MOD14: How effective is the protection offered to 20th-century heritage by national designation and policies to protect heritage through Local Listing and Neighbourhood Development Plans?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Conservation

WORCSB_MOD15: To what extent do local communities recognise 20th-century heritage, and their different dates and types, as positive or negative features of the wider landscape?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Community, Conservation

WORCSB_MOD16: Which building types are most at risk of demolition and re-development and should therefore be considered a priority for recording and research?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Conservation

WORCSB_MOD17: To what extent should approaches to the conservation of 20th-century heritage differ from those of earlier dates? Should we be more engaged in enabling buildings that we value, particularly at a local level, to be recorded and then adapted in ways that might result in loss of plan form and details whilst retaining what we most value, so that they can be enjoyed by future generations?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Conservation

Key Topics

Agricultural and Subsistence

WORCSB_MOD18: How did the location of County Council Farms and Small Holdings relate to existing settlement?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Settlement, 20th century, Building, Smallholding

WORCSB_MOD19: What is the evidence for the development of industrial and semi-industrial buildings that adhere to national standards, and how do they vary across the county?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Industrial, Settlement, 20th century, Building, Farm building

WORCSB_MOD20: Why did Worcestershire County Council select particular Small Holding schemes and not others?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Settlement, 20th century, Smallholding

WORCSB_MOD21: How much variation was there in the pattern of market gardening? What is the survival, size, construction, design and usage of temporary accommodations?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Settlement, 20th century, Farm building, Smallholding, Farm labourers cottage, Market garden, Settlement pattern

WORCSB_MOD22: To what extent does mid-century map evidence record the location and character of seasonal agricultural labourers’ accommodation?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Settlement, Agriculture and subsistence, 20th century, Agricultural dwelling, Farm building, Agricultural building, Smallholding, Farm labourers cottage

WORCSB_MOD23: To what extent has allotment provision, by Local Authorities in Worcestershire, fluctuated over the course of the 20th and 21st Centuries? How does this relate to wider socio-economic factors?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Agriculture and subsistence, 20th century, Allotment, Allotments, Society, Economy
Cottage residence developed on Plot 1 of the Woodrow Farm Small Holdings Estate.
Cottage residence developed on Plot 1 of the Woodrow Farm Small Holdings Estate. Photo © Worcestershire County Council

Civil

WORCSB_MOD24: To what extent have the designers of buildings responded to national trends including legislative reform and/or local styles?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Civil

WORCSB_MOD25: Are there differences between the styles and approaches by in-house design teams, distinguishing between those at central and local level, and commissioned architects?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Civil

WORCSB_MOD26: n what ways has 20th-century civil architecture in Worcestershire succeeded in breaking down social barriers and fostering wider social interconnection?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Civil, Society

WORCSB_MOD27: To what extent did village halls enable social interaction and express local identity?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Civil, Village hall, Society, Identity

Commemorative

WORCSB_MOD28: How different or similar are approaches to the design of memorials to the fallen and those who served in the First World War?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Commemorative, War memorial, First world war

WORCSB_MOD29: How have attitudes to, and the design of, commemorative architecture changed in Worcestershire after World War II?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Second world war, Architecture, Commemorative, War memorial

WORCSB_MOD30: To what extent are significant local people of the 20th-century commemorated in local development and design?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Commemorative

WORCSB_MOD31: What else should be commemorated?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Commemorative

Commercial

WORCSB_MOD32: How does commercial architecture reflect the changing preferences of ‘consumer society’ and of consumer groups over the 20th Century?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Commercial

WORCSB_MOD33: What is the evidence for the designers of commercial buildings responding to national trends and developing local styles?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Commercial

WORCSB_MOD34: How does the architecture of small-scale retail, and of eating and drinking establishments, reject or accept the trends set by large companies?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Commercial, Shop, Eating and drinking establishment

WORCSB_MOD35: What is the evidence, for example in retained shop fronts, for small-scale retail in rural areas?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Commercial, Shop, Eating and drinking establishment

WORCSB_MOD36: To what extent did the development and expansion of the co-operative movement shape urban and rural built heritage in Worcestershire?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Commercial, Cooperative store, Shop

Communications

WORCSB_MOD37: How do the county’s sites and any buildings relate to the development of the national communications infrastructure?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Communications

Defence

WORCSB_MOD38: To what extent have military sites – airfields and camps in particular – stimulated the growth of settlements and the development of places with their own distinct character and uses?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Military base, 20th century, Military camp, Building, Military building, Architecture, Communications, Military airfield site, Military airfield, Military

WORCSB_MOD39: How are the two World Wars reflected in the adaptation of different non-military building types and places? What legible traces are there of their impact?

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Education

WORCSB_MOD40: How did schools, colleges and libraries develop across the county, and in rural, suburban and urban areas, in response to legislation and settlement change?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Settlement, 20th century, Building, Architecture, School, College, Education, Suburb, Library, Urban settlement, Rural settlement

WORCSB_MOD41: For secondary schools, are distinctions such as grammar, technical, secondary modern or comprehensive expressed imaginatively in their plans and provision?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Settlement, 20th century, Building, Architecture, School, Grammar school, Comprehensive school, Education, Technical school, Secondary modern school, Secondary school

WORCSB_MOD42: Who commissioned and who were the designers of schools and further education colleges in the county, and to what extent did they follow or find their own solutions to internal planning, the provision of sports facilities etc?

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Originally built as a Secondary school in the 1950s, Sion High School in Kidderminster later became a Middle School. It was built to the designs of Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the architect who completed the Grade I listed Anglican Cathedral Church of Christ in Liverpool. Designed around a grassed quadrangle, it represents a continuation of the pre-war International Style in its strong and modular horizontal form. After being derelict for approximately 10 years the site was recently demolished to make way for new housing.
Originally built as a Secondary school in the 1950s, Sion High School in Kidderminster later became a Middle School. It was built to the designs of Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the architect who completed the Grade I listed Anglican Cathedral Church of Christ in Liverpool. Designed around a grassed quadrangle, it represents a continuation of the pre-war International Style in its strong and modular horizontal form. After being derelict for approximately 10 years the site was recently demolished to make way for new housing. Photo © Paul Collins

Health and Welfare

WORCSB_MOD43: How have hospitals of different scales and types responded to historic developments and the foundation of the NHS?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Hospital

WORCSB_MOD44: To what extent does 20th-century heritage in Worcestershire reflect changing attitudes to physical disability and mental health provision across the course of the 20th-century?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Hospital

Industrial

WORCSB_MOD45: What is the distribution, character and significance of workers housing related to 20th-century service industries, the defence industry and civil defence?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Industrial, 20th century, Building, Architecture, Industrial house, Industrial building, Industrial village

WORCSB_MOD46: To what extent has the nationalisation and subsequent privatisation of large-scale industry impacted positively and negatively Worcestershire’s urban and rural landscapes?

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WORCSB_MOD47: To what extent did pre-existing technical and intellectual skills, across the Region, influence the emergence of 20th-century manufacturing, technological and service industries in Worcestershire?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Industrial, 20th century, Building, Architecture, Industrial house, Industrial building, Industrial village, Manufacturing industry, Technology, Rural, Urban

WORCSB_MOD48: How did the local geology and topography, including access to raw materials and natural energy, contribute to industrial growth and development in 20th-century Worcestershire?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Industrial, 20th century, Building, Architecture, Material, Geology, Topography

WORCSB_MOD49: What is the evidence for the survival of earlier crafts and traditions?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Industrial, 20th century, Building, Architecture, Craft industry site

Public Art

WORCSB_MOD50: How has post-war art in the county become etched in the collective memory and social consciousness of local people?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Society, Memory, Art

WORCSB_MOD51: What local examples are there of 20th-century architecture incorporating public art?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Art
This retaining wall with decorative sculptural relief by William Mitchell, in Kidderminster, was listed in 2020 for its architectural and historic interest.
This retaining wall with decorative sculptural relief by William Mitchell, in Kidderminster, was listed in 2020 for its architectural and historic interest.
Photo © Worcestershire County Council

Public Utilities

WORCSB_MOD52: How has the provision of public utilities such as gas, electricity and mains water been managed across urban and rural landscapes in Worcestershire?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Electricity sub station, Gas works, Water supply and drainage, Electricity distribution, Electricity generation

Recreation (including public parks and open spaces), Entertainment and Sport

WORCSB_MOD53: In what ways do public parks and communal spaces reflect changing social attitudes to children during the early 20th-century?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Public park, Recreation, Recreation and leisure, Open space

WORCSB_MOD54: The retention of green and blue infrastructure, including greenspaces, archaeological earthworks, veteran trees, hedgerow boundaries and significant views, was an important factor in the design of Redditch New Town, not only to enhance the natural feeling of the environment but also to alleviate climatic conditions within the landscape. To what extent has this vision been respected or disregarded in later strategic or development control planning decisions?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Public park, New town, Recreation, Recreation and leisure, Open space, Landscape

WORCSB_MOD55: What is the extent and survival of communal green space adjacent to Village Halls and Community Centres? To what extent have these communal landscapes changed/been lost because of 21st Century development or ‘improvement’?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Community centre, Village hall, Public park, Open space

WORCSB_MOD56: To what extent were communal buildings, including health clinics and estate pubs, and spaces designed as part of post-war social housing estates in Worcestershire? To what extent have these communal landscapes been lost/weakened by 21st Century development?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Council housing estate, Building, Architecture, Public house, Community centre, Clinic, Health establishment, Council housing

WORCSB_MOD57: How were the social beliefs, values and experiences of 20th-century industrialists reflected in the provision of sports and leisure facilities for workers and their families?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Industrial, 20th century, Building, Architecture, Industrial village, Sports facility, Leisure

WORCSB_MOD58: Does the architecture of club and society buildings express different or shared identities? What was the range of activities happening within them?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Industrial, 20th century, Building, Architecture, Clubhouse, Social club, Sports facility, Leisure

WORCSB_MOD59: How have buildings and spaces been adapted for new and significant types of activity, such as for mainstream and ‘underground’ music and other groups.

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Architecture, Clubhouse, Music speech and dance venue, Activity centre, Leisure

WORCSB_MOD60: How do buildings for recreation and leisure relate to more general trends in access to countryside and leisure, including the decline in earlier traditions of outdoor play and recreation?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
20th century, Building, Recreation and leisure, Leisure

Religious, ritual and funerary

WORCSB_MOD61: To what extent has shifting attitudes to religious belief and practice been reflected in 20th-century architecture and ritual landscapes across Worcestershire?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Religion or ritual, 20th century, Building, Religious ritual and funerary, Architecture, Religious house, Religious community, Religion

WORCSB_MOD62: What was the pattern of adaptation and new building across the county, and how does it relate to the provision of educational and recreational buildings that replaced these aspects of life in which different churches had played a leading role?

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The 'new' Somers Park Methodist Chapel in Malvern was designed by Stanley A. Griffiths and completed in 1936. The original school/chapel of 1907 is extant and used as the Church Hall
The ‘new’ Somers Park Methodist Chapel in Malvern was designed by Stanley A. Griffiths and completed in 1936. The original school/chapel of 1907 is extant and used as the Church Hall. Photo © Worcestershire County Council

Transport and Travel

WORCSB_MOD63: How did transport infrastructure develop across the county over the 20th-century?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Road, Transport, 20th century, Building, Architecture, Canal, Railway, Motorway, River

WORCSB_MOD64: How has it followed or driven all other aspects of life, work and leisure in the county?

More information on this question
Status:
Active
Date accepted:
18/03/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
Worcestershire
Categories:
Road, Transport, 20th century, Building, Architecture, Canal, Railway, Motorway, River



[1] See for example Macdonald S (ed) 1996

[2] The Worcestershire research strategy for 20th-century heritage is set within a national context and so offers some thoughts on how research could be developed in other areas and counties.

[3] Belford in Watt 2011, 229

Bibliography

Belford P 2011 ‘The archaeology of everything’ – grappling with post-medieval, industrial and contemporary archaeology in Watt, S. (Ed.) (2011) The Archaeology of the West Midlands. A framework for research. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Hathaway E and J Lake 2020 Adding a New Layer: Guide to 20th– century Non-Domestic Buildings and Public Places in Worcestershire. Worcestershire County Council and Historic England.

Hathaway E and J Lake 2020 Adding a New Layer: 20th– century Non-Domestic Buildings and Public Places National Framework for Assessment. Worcestershire County Council and Historic England.

Hathaway E and J Lake 2020 Adding a New Layer: 20th– century heritage in Worcestershire: Future Work and Research Priorities. Worcestershire County Council and Historic England.

Hathaway E 2020 Adding a New Layer: Case Study Worcestershire’s Village and Community Halls. Worcestershire County Council and Historic England.

Hathaway E 2020 Adding a New Layer: Case Study Worcestershire’s County Farms and Small Holdings. Worcestershire County Council and Historic England.

Macdonald S (ed) 1996 Modern Matters: Principles and Practice in Conserving Recent Architecture. Shaftesbury: Donhead.

Mindykowski A 2020 Adding a New Layer: Case Study Kidderminster. Worcestershire County Council and Historic England.

Webley A 2020 Adding a New Layer: Case Study Redditch New Town. Worcestershire County Council and Historic England.