Palaeolithic

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1. PALAEOLITHIC (c.950/850 kya[1]–c.9500 cal BC[2]): RESEARCH AGENDA

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1.1. Archaeological Period 1: Cromerian and Intra-Anglian (c.950–450 kya[1])

1.1.1: What may analyses of artefact assemblages contribute to studies of the material culture of the earliest colonisers of western Doggerland?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
28/06/2019
Date of next review:
28/06/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
PALAEOLITHIC, ASSEMBLAGE, SUBMERGED LANDSCAPE
Linked Strategy(s):
Refine knowledge of the earliest hominin activity in the region (pre-Anglian: Cromerian complex of Period 1)

1.1.2: From how early may the material culture of the earliest colonisers of western Doggerland date?

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1.1.3: Where is pre-Anglian material found, and what may we deduce from its distribution about the routes of movement of early colonisers (e.g. along the Bytham River and ancestral routes of the Trent)?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
05/06/2019
Date of next review:
06/05/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING, PALAEOLITHIC, ASSEMBLAGE, River, Migration
Linked Strategy(s):
Refine knowledge of the earliest hominin activity in the region (pre-Anglian: Cromerian complex of Period 1)

1.1.4: Can we detect traces of intra-Anglian activity within the region, and in particular how should we interpret rare finds of artefacts associated with Anglian outwash and till?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
05/06/2019
Date of next review:
06/05/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
ANIMAL REMAINS, ASSEMBLAGE, Till, Glaciation Deposit

1.1.5: Can we define more closely the distribution of sediments likely to yield traces of Period 1 activity and organic remains (notably those relating to the River Bytham and precursors of the Trent and Witham)?

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1.2. Archaeological Periods 2 and 3: Pre-Levallois (c.450–250 kya) and Levallois (c.250–150 kya) Lower Palaeolithic

1.2.1: Can we locate convincing evidence for Period 2 activity in the region?

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1.2.2: Can we elucidate the distribution, topographic location, character and date of Period 3 material, especially in sealed contexts in terraces?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
05/06/2019
Date of next review:
06/05/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
RADIOCARBON DATING, PALAEOLITHIC, LITHIC IMPLEMENT, ANIMAL REMAINS, BONE

1.2.3: What is the range and variability of Levallois (prepared core) technology within the region, and what may East Midlands assemblages contribute to studies of the development of this technique?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
01/10/2019
Date of next review:
01/10/2024
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
PALAEOLITHIC, Levallois Core

1.2.4: What is the composition of Lower Palaeolithic assemblages of non-Levallois/Levallois type within the region, and how might this have changed over time?

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1.3. Archaeological Period 4: Mousterian (c. 60–40 kya)

1.3.1: How can we locate additional caves and open-air sites with evidence for Mousterian activity?

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1.3.2: How might caves and open-air sites have been related?

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1.3.3: Can we refine by radiocarbon dating the chronology of Mousterian sites and key artefact types (e.g. bout coupé axes)?

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1.3.4: Can we characterise more precisely the extant artefact collections from the region?

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1.3.5: What may artefact analyses contribute to studies of relationships between Mousterian hunter-gatherer communities?

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1.4. Archaeological Period 5: Early (c.40-27 kya) and Late (c.13,000–9500 cal BC) Upper Palaeolithic

1.4.1: How may studies of East Midlands sites contribute to testing and dating of the proposed Early and Late Upper Palaeolithic cultural succession?

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1.4.2: How may studies of artefact typologies and raw materials contribute to our understanding of patterns of hunter-gatherer mobility?

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1.4.3: What was the relationship between caves and open-air sites, and may we discern differences in artefact typologies?

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1.4.4: How were Early Upper and Late Upper Palaeolithic sites distributed across the landscape, and what contrasts may be observed with earlier and later (Mesolithic) periods?

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1.4.5: What may artefact analyses contribute to studies of relationships between groups across Doggerland and of regional cultural traditions?

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1.4.6: Can work at sites such as Creswell Crags elucidate the chronology of the recolonisation of western Doggerland after the Late Glacial Maximum?

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1.4.7: May further important examples of Palaeolithic artwork be preserved in caves of the Magnesian Limestone or elsewhere?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
05/06/2019
Date of next review:
06/05/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
PALAEOLITHIC, CAVE, CAVE DEPOSIT, ROCK ART
Linked Strategy(s):
Investigate Upper Palaeolithic use of the limestone caves of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire

1.4.8: How may lithic technology and typology have changed at the Terminal Palaeolithic-Mesolithic transition and what may this signify culturally?

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1.5. Pleistocene environmental change

1.5.1: Can we shed further light upon the development of the pre-Anglian river systems that may have served as corridors of movement for the earliest hominines (especially the Bytham River and precursors of the Trent)?

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1.5.2: How may studies of fauna, pollen and other organic material from palaeochannels, caves, terrace sediments and other deposits refine our understanding of the evolving environment, and how may this have varied spatially?

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1.6. General themes

1.6.1: How best may we extend and enhance regional fieldwalking or test-pitting programmes as means of prospecting for open-air sites?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
05/06/2019
Date of next review:
06/05/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
PALAEOLITHIC
Linked Strategy(s):
Further investigate Upper Palaeolithic open-air sites, Investigate the annual patterns of movement of Late Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers

1.6.3: How can we elucidate further the archaeological potential of the submerged landscapes of Doggerland?

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Status:
Active
Date accepted:
05/06/2019
Date of next review:
06/05/2021
Found in the following Frameworks:
East Midlands Historic Environment Research Framework
Categories:
PALAEOLITHIC, INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES
Linked Strategy(s):
Explore the submerged Pleistocene landscapes of Doggerland

1.6.4: How can we ensure that resources are focused upon monitoring quarries with the highest potential for unearthing Pleistocene cultural and environmental remains?

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Dating conventions (see McNabb, J., 2006. The Palaeolithic, in The Archaeology of the East Midlands, 13–17):
[1] kya: thousand years ago (period falling beyond limits of radiocarbon dating)
[2] cal BC: calibrated years BC (for periods where calibration has been determined with reasonable accuracy)